Category: Diet

Probiotics May Help Alleviate Autism Symptoms

Probiotics May Help Alleviate Autism Symptoms

00Autism, Diet, Featured news, Genetics, Health, Therapy August, 15

Source: David Robert Bliwas/Flickr

Probiotics can be found in many foods, like yogurt, soups, and even pizza, and are often viewed as a “cure-all” –from improving digestive health and immune function, to lowering cholesterol levels.

Probiotics are live organisms that, when taken in adequate amounts, have the ability to quickly colonize the gastrointestinal track and increase the amount of beneficial microbes, creating a balance in the gut microbiota that is considered health enhancing.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological condition that impairs children’s social and communicative functioning, and often presents in the first three years of life.  Many children with autism experience severe gastrointestinal problems, and the associated discomfort often worsens behavior.

Currently, there is no cure for autism, nor have any drugs been developed to treat symptoms.  And no screening test can determine if a child is at risk for autism.  The disorder can sometimes be detected in 18 month olds, but the majority are not diagnosed until much older.

Recently, California Institute of Technology researcher, Elaine Hsiao found that treating mice who exhibit autistic symptoms with probiotics can restore both gut barrier function and behavioural abnormalities.

In Hsiao’s study, researchers injected pregnant mice with a virus that enhanced anxiety, decreased ultrasonic vocalizations, increased gut barrier permeability, and shifted the gut micro flora in the offspring.  When the offspring were given a human strain of Bacteroides fragilis as a probiotic, the bacterial balance was restored, and autism-like behavioural symptoms were alleviated.

A serum metabolite called 4-ethylphenylsulfate, produced by some mice gut bacteria, was found to be elevated in the offspring of the autism model.  After the probiotic injection, this metabolite decreased to normal levels.  Furthermore, injecting 4-ethylphenylsulfate into normal mice produced symptoms of anxiety, suggesting that this metabolite, in combination with others, affects neural circuits linked to autism.

Neurologist  Natasha Campbell-McBride, formerly at Bashkir Medical University in Russia, reported that almost all mothers of autistic children have irregular gut flora. This is noteworthy since at the time of birth, newborns inherit gut flora from mothers. An analysis of the gut micro floras of healthy and autistic children revealed that gut micro flora in autistic children is of lower quantity and diversity.

Studies have shown that infants born by C-section develop dissimilar and less diverse micro flora than naturally born babies.  It seems passage through the birth canal has a positive effect on the infant’s gut bacteria and may play a preventative role in autism.

The percentage of women having C-sections in the U.S. has increased from 5-10% in 1965 to 32.8% today.  According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), autism rates are also on the rise.  Fifteen years ago, 1 in 10,000 children were diagnosed with autism.  Ten years ago, 1 in 1,000.  Current statistics from the CDC report the figure as 1 in 50.

Taken orally, probiotics have been deemed safe and are well tolerated for use during pregnancy. The most common adverse side effects reported are bloating and flatulence, which typically subside with continued use.  It is still unclear which strain of probiotic may be most beneficial.

To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any specific probiotic health claims and the quantity of probiotics needed to be beneficial is still unclear.

Celebrities like Jenny McCarthy believe that symptoms of autism can be relieved by dietary changes.  McCarthy claims a strict wheat and dairy-free diet cured her son.  But anecdotal reports are of limited value, often reflecting the idiosyncratic opinions of influential individuals.

Large-scale clinical trials that study the effects of diet on those with autism are needed. In the meantime, anecdotal evidence is compelling and may eventually lead to definitive findings.

Shifting micro flora in the gut may make a potentially useful treatment for autism available.  The method may even make assessing a genetic predisposition to autism possible.

Research is still in its early phases.  Probiotics may improve digestive health, but the jury is still out on whether they can definitively reduce autism symptoms.

– Jenna Ulrich, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Abusing Your Body Through Exercise

Abusing Your Body Through Exercise

00Anxiety, Body Image, Diet, Featured news, Obessive-Compulsive Disorder, Sport and Competition June, 15

Source: Flickr/Mario Lazaro Delgado Marquez

Last year, a good friend of mine became obsessed with the gym. Preoccupied by the “small” size of his muscles, he would spend hours staring at himself in the mirror. Others commented on how great his body looked, yet he didn’t believe them. Sticking to a rigid exercise and eating schedule, he stopped socializing with friends, became secretive, and dropped out of school.

A sense of hatred toward a particular body part, hiding it, or using extreme measures to change it is commonly seen in people with Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder (MDD).

MDD is most common in men, especially professional body builders or frequent gym-goers, and individuals who work or live in an environment where weight and appearance are considered important. My friend was a kinesiology student and was surrounded by an MDD-conducive environment.

MDD is listed in the DSM-5 under the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders(OCD) to reflect its similarities to both process and treatment of OCD. MDD is also a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a pathological preoccupation with features that are perceived as defective or grotesque, which leads to persistent stress and obsession. In MDD, the emphasis is specifically on muscularity. My friend’s particular body part was his biceps; even though he had stretch marks from over-working them, he still complained they were too small.

MDD is also distinct from eating disorders. The concern is not with striving to be thin, but rather with their perceived underdeveloped muscle mass. At times I would see my friend eat three cans of tuna and four eggs in one sitting – he felt his body needed the protein to build mass.

Statistics on MDD are limited since it is categorized under BDD. The prevalence of BDD is approximately 2.4% of the general population which makes it more prevalent than schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

Symptoms of MDD are deceptive. The trouble with diagnosing MDD is that patients often do not consider themselves ill or in need of help. The more my friend became involved in the gym, the more I would try and talk to him about my suspicion that he was suffering from MDD, but the conversations never ended well. To add to the complexity of the disorder, some individuals with MDD tend to wear baggy clothes to hide their bodies, while others wear tight clothes to show off their muscular stature.

But getting help is important, as potential long term effects include damaged muscles, joints, cartilage and ligaments due to inadequate rest from strenuous weightlifting. They are also more likely to have a poorer quality of life, show a higher frequency of anabolic steroid abuse, and even suicide attempts.

Criteria for diagnosis include repetitive behaviours caused by preoccupations with perceived body defect(s), excessive training, following a rigid diet, avoidance of social events to maintain diet and exercise schedules, and avoiding situations that include body exposure, which may lead to extreme anxiety. The individual’s body perception causes considerable impairment in daily functioning. The diagnosis requires two of these criteria to be met.

There are analytical tools to help diagnose MDD. Most common is the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale developed in 2002 by Psychologist Stephen B. Mayville, which rates levels of muscle satisfaction, substance use, and injury. Or the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory which is a six factor scale that determines body size, exercise dependence, supplement use, dietary behaviour, physique protection, and pharmacological use.

And there are psychological treatments as well. The most common of which is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), which teaches an individual to identify and modify distorted thoughts (e.g., I am not muscular enough), and to replace unhealthy behaviours (e.g., exercising four hours a day) with healthier ones. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has also been used with MDD, but the most effective treatment is a combination of CBT and medication.

Despite recent awareness and treatments, with rising interest in fitness clubs and health supplements, as well as pressure on males to be unrealistically muscular and lean, a further rise in MDD wouldn’t be surprising.

– Jenna Ulrich, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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Anorexia Affects More Men Than Previously Thought

10Bulimia Nervosa, Consumer Behavior, Diet, Eating Disorders, Featured news, Gender, Health, Psychiatry March, 15

Source: Federico Morando//Flickr

Zachary Haines was 16 years old when a physical examination put his 5’7”, 230-pound body within the obese range.  Soon after, Zachary began working out and watching his diet, entering his junior year at high school 45 pounds lighter.

But what started as a healthy lifestyle soon spiralled into a struggle with anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by severely restricting food intake.  Like many other men and boys, Zachary’s extreme weight loss was not identified as an illness.  In fact, it was ignored until he was hospitalized for malnutrition.  Despite having many of the telltale signs of anorexia, Zachary’s condition went untreated.

Anorexia and bulimia are traditionally seen as “female problems.”  But, recent studies show that approximately one third of people with anorexia and about one half of those with bulimia are men.

One of the  influences thought to impact these men are the shifting ideals in the media that are putting pressure on men to become thinner.

While there may not be a direct causal relationship between media portrayals of the ‘ideal’ man and the development of eating disorders, these depictions contribute to a cultural context that glorifies their apparent normalcy.   They may also influence males’ fears of becoming overweight, as male models face pressure to slim down and appear androgynous.

The thin ideal male image is also making its way into fashion.

In 1967, an average mannequin’s dimensions were a 42-inch chest and a 33-inch waist.  Today’s average dimensions are a 35-inch chest and a 27-inch waist.  With the average American man’s waist size being 39.7 inches, these changes represent a remarkably unrealistic objective.

For Zachary, fitting into smaller sized clothing after weight loss was a source of pride.

But during treatment this once enjoyable activity became emotionally painful:  In Zachary’s words, “The most anxiety-inducing part for me is trying on clothes.  If I go up a size, I think I’m going to be 230 pounds again.”

The signs that something was wrong were all there.

Despite working out for three hours per day while only consuming 1,400 calories, Zachary was continuously trying to lose more weight.  By relying on inaccurate results from the Body Mass Index (BMI), doctors missed his emaciation.  He had never fallen into the anorexic range because the BMI does not take into account the proportion of muscle to fat, even though his emaciation would have been evident if he were seen shirtless.

The growing number of stories like Zach’s has led to significant changes to how anorexia nervosa is diagnosed.

In the DSM-V (the most recent version of American psychiatry’s diagnostic manual), this change involved eliminating Criterion D, or amenorrhea (the absence of menstruation) to make the diagnosis gender-neutral.

Zachary recovered because he had support from his family and friends, private insurance, and access to physicians and psychiatrists, who he worked with closely.

To help his recovery, he had to change his wish to pursue becoming an athletic trainer to that of going into advertising.

Those without resources can also identify some of the signs of an eating disorder:  extreme exercise behaviors, compulsive thoughts of losing weight, constantly feeling cold, and extreme food restriction.

These signs don’t discriminate between men and women, neither should we.

– Contributing Writer: Danielle Tremblay, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: Federico Morando//Flickr

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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Ritual Abuse, Cults and Captivity

00Child Development, Diet, Environment, Fear, Featured news, Gratitude, Identity, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Sleep, Therapy, Trauma February, 15

It is almost impossible to imagine the realities endured by victims of ritual abuse:  multiple abusers with systematic motives coordinated with the sole purpose of perpetrating and maintaining a cycle of abuse.  Cults and organizations such as David Koresh’s Branch Davidians use torture and sexual abuse to control their members and force them into compliance.

Behind The Abuse

The Ritual Abuse Task Force of the L.A. County Commission for Women defined ritual abuse as involving:

“…repeated abuse over an extended period of time.  The physical abuse is severe, sometimes including torture and killing.  The sexual abuse is usually painful, humiliating, intended as a means of gaining dominance over the victim.  The psychological abuse is devastating and involves the use of ritual indoctrination.  It includes mind control techniques which convey to the victim a profound terror of the cult members…most victims are in a state of terror, mind control and dissociation.”

According to psychologist Louis Cozolino of Pepperdine University, ritual abuse is characterized by a number of perpetrators of both sexes and the presence of many victims.  The abuse is often carried out in contexts where children are in groups, and within families or groups of families.

Often seen are mind-control techniques that involve combinations of extreme abuse and “brainwashing.”  For example, “psychic driving” is defined by psychologist Ellen Lacter (who runs www.endritualabuse.org) as taped messages that are played for hours non-stop, while the victim is in a state of consciousness altered by sleep deprivation, electro-shock, sensory deprivation, and inadequate nutrition.

Researcher Patricia Precin of the New York Institute of Technology, alongside Cozolino, report that many ritual abuse survivors suffer from PTSD.  Clinicians also see a high frequency of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) among such adolescent and adult patients.

And in an Australian study of workers at the Center against Sexual Assault (CASA) including psychiatrists, psychologists, and other clinicians, 70 percent of all counselors agreed with a single definition of ritual abuse and 85 percent agreed that ritual abuse was an indication of genuine trauma.  CASA workers were much more likely to believe their client’s ritual abuse and marginally more likely to identify ritual abuse cases than other therapists.

Cozolino references a vast amount of corroborating evidence for the existence of ritual abuse, such as police reports and therapeutic case studies.  In one of his papers he describes one such case:

“A five-year-old victim in the Country Walk case related that one of his abusers at his day-care setting had been killing birds.  This young boy spontaneously repeated the following well-rehearsed prayer to his startled father:

‘Devil, I love you.

Please take this bird with you

and take all the children up to hell with you.

You gave me grateful gifts.

God of Ghosts, please hate Jesus and kill Jesus because

He is the baddest, damnedest person in the whole world.

Amen.

We don’t love children because they are a gift of God.

We want the children to be hurt.’ ”

Although such accounts are well documented, not everyone believes ritual abuse exists. Bernard Gallagher from the Centre for Applied Childhood Studies at the University of Huddersfield considers ritual abuse a result of erroneous diagnosis made by agency workers:

“This includes pressuring children into making disclosures, the misinterpretation of children’s statements and an over-reliance upon preconceived ideas concerning the existence of ritual abuse.  This results in what psychologists and statisticians might refer to as ‘false positives, ” writes Gallagher.

After The Cult

Escaping the torment of a cult is perhaps the most difficult part for a survivor, but recovery and rehabilitation can be just as challenging.  Cozolino and colleague Ruth Shaffer interviewed survivors, focusing questions on recovery.  They reported that the majority considered participation in support groups a necessary adjunct to psychotherapy.

It may seem counterintuitive to treat ex-cult members as a group because their abuse took place in a group setting.  However certain precautions may be taken to make treatment effective.

For example, British researcher Nicole Durocher notes that organizers must take care not to construct a group that resembles a cult gathering in any way.  The support group has to be sensitive to the special needs of each ex-cult member and to the particular context of the cult from which they exited.

The professional in the group must differ from those in other support groups, acting as an advocate-mediator to observe the group, identifying conflicts, clarifying alternatives for resolution, and negotiating compromises.  These support groups occasionally have the professional co-lead the group with an ex-member acting as an observer, guide, and consultant.

One survivor of multi-generational ritual abuse who wishes to remain anonymous, has written a public letter to the Stop Mind Control and Ritual Abuse Today (S.M.A.R.T) organization, reflecting on his own struggle with PTSD.

“My PTSD often reminds me of what it is to be a soldier.  On the battlefield when every moment is life and death, a soldier will do many things and anything to survive.  When the soldier returns to a normal, non-war society he can’t understand why he did the things he did.”

He goes on to say that with the help of therapy, his shattered life and sense of self can be pieced together again:

“I cry, I sing, play guitar, listen to music, sleep normal hours instead of being awake all night, and more than anything else, I try to change who I was… into who I am.”

– Contributing Writer: Justin Garzon, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: https://stocksnap.io/photo/YN5H0VTR6O/

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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Methadone Treatment May Prolong Addiction

00Addiction, Diet, Environment, Fear, Featured news, Health, Motivation, Psychopharmacology, Resilience, Sleep, Spirituality, Stress, Trauma January, 15

The conventional treatment for opioid dependence is to prescribe methadone.

Similar to morphine, methadone is a synthetic opioid sometimes referred to as a narcotic. It is useful at preventing opioid withdrawal, minimizing drug cravings, and is said to reduce the risk of HIV, Hepatitis C and other diseases associated with intravenous drug usage. Methadone is also cheap, and best of all legal.

Despite the advantages, methadone is highly addictive, and has many side effects such as dry mouth, fatigue, and weight gain.

Treatment involving methadone requires a weekly medical visit to renew the prescription, sometimes leading those who are addicted back to the very environment and people that they need to avoid to stay clean.

The Trauma & Mental Health Report recently spoke with Leslie (name changed for anonymity), a patient who has been receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), who says, “Sometimes I wait all day to see the doctor. During that time, you can’t help but associate with other users, hear “drug talk”, or even see drugs being passed around. The methadone doctor doesn’t push counseling and is not there for support. I’m only going to get my prescription.”

Toward the end of treatment, methadone dose is slowly tapered to prevent withdrawal. But most users don’t wean off completely. Leslie says she didn’t have the motivation or tools to do so until she started seeing her drug addictions counselor:

“I’ve been trying to get off of methadone for 18 months now. It has helped with the withdrawal symptoms, and life is easier to manage since I’m not running the street 24/7 looking for my next fix. And I have more time to get my life on track. But, In order to ‘knock’ the addiction you need to figure out what your personal triggers are. My counselor has helped me with this. She also provides a safe place for me to go and discuss my problems and any issues I have with MMT.”

The greatest fear is relapse. Although part of the recovery process, relapse can have physical and emotional consequences. But it helps to identify personal triggers: cues that provoke drug-seeking behavior, the most common of which are stress, environmental factors such as certain people or places, and re-exposure to drugs.

The most important missing link in MMT is drug counseling. Meeting with a counselor is not mandated and patients seldom see one. Those who seek counseling benefit from help determining personal triggers, and preparing for potential relapse. A counselor may help create a healthy living plan that focuses on improving mental health with nutrition, exercise, sleep, building healthy relationships, and spiritual development.

Better family relationships also help with recovery. Including family members in treatment increases commitment to counseling and also helps family members understand what the person is going though.

Opioid addiction is more than physical dependence. Initial detox is a start. Methadone helps with the physical aspects of withdrawal, and helps users lead a more normal life. But without the help of a drug counselor, MMT isn’t enough.

Without counseling, social support, a drug free environment, and the desire to change, we lead the patient only part way there. And part way isn’t enough.

– Contributing Writer: Jenna Ulrich, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: www.123rf.com/stock-photo/lonely_man.html

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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Video Games Rated A for Addictive

00Addiction, Depression, Diet, Featured news, Health, Neuroscience, Optimism, Psychopharmacology, Self-Control, Sex, Sleep, Stress, Treatment December, 14

Picture if you will, flashing screens, loud noises, focused faces and a crowd gathered to watch high stakes games; games that end only when you run out of money.

This is not a casino. Those faces are staring at flashing computer screens in an arcade and the high stakes match is actually a video game.

Scenes like this make it possible to view video gaming as an addiction. Like a gambler endlessly playing slots, the video gamer can spend hours on the vice of choice.

Those who consider gaming as addictive highlight similarities between models of addiction and the behaviour of those who can’t seem to stop playing video games, despite the consequences 

What does it mean to be addicted to a video game? Addiction used to be a term reserved for drug use defined by physical dependency, uncontrollable craving, and increased consumption due to tolerance. Advances in neuroscience show that these drugs tap into the reward system of the brain resulting in a large release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. This is a system normally activated when basic reinforcers are applied, like food or sex. Drugs just do it better.

Gaetano Di Chiara and Assunta Imperato, researchers at the Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Cagliani, Italy, found that drugs can cause a release of up to ten times the amount of dopamine normally found in the brain’s reward system. This has led to a shift in how addictions are viewed. Any physical substance or behaviour that can “hijack” this dopamine reward system may be viewed as addictive.

When can you be sure that the system has been hijacked? Steve Grant, chief clinical neuroscientist at the National Institute of Drug Abuse, says it happens when there “is continued engagement in self-destructive behaviour despite adverse consequences.”

Video games seem to hijack this reward system very efficiently. Certainly Nick Yee, author of the Daedelus Project, thinks so. He explains, “[Video Games] employ well-known behavioral conditioning principles from psychology that reinforce repetitive actions through an elaborate system of scheduled rewards. In effect, the game rewards players to perform increasingly tedious tasks and seduces the player to ‘play’ industriously.” Researchers in the UK found biological evidence that playing video games and achieving these rewards results in the release of dopamine.

This same release of the neurotransmitter occurs during activities considered healthy, such as exercise or work. Since dopamine release is not bad per se, it is not necessarily a problem that video games do the same thing.

In her book, Reality is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World, Jane McGonigal writes, “A game is an opportunity to focus our energy, with relentless optimism, at something we’re good at (or getting better at) and enjoy. In other words, game-play is the direct emotional opposite of depression.” Playing games can be an easy way to relieve stress and get that satisfaction that comes with dopamine release.

But it is concerning when this search for the dopamine kick becomes preferable to real life, when playing video games replaces activities like socializing with friends and family, exercising, or sleep. Nutrition may begin to suffer as the gamer picks fast-food over proper meals. School-work and job performance suffer as gaming turns into an escape from life. It becomes troubling when video games are used as the main way of coping.

Psychologist Richard Wood says just that in his article Problems with the Concept of Video Game “Addiction”: Some Case Study Examples. “It seems that video games can be used as a means of escape…If people cannot deal with their problems, and choose instead to immerse themselves in a game, then surely their gaming behaviour is actually a symptom rather than the specific cause of their problem.”

Regardless, there are some unable to stop despite the consequences. In rare cases it has actually caused death, through neglect of a child or physical exhaustion. Excessive video game playing may represent a way of coping with underlying issues. But it becomes its own problem when the impulse to play just can’t be denied.

Psychiatrist Kimberly Young, Director of the Center for Internet Addiction Recovery argues that “[gaming addiction is] a clinical impulse control disorder, an addiction in the same sense as compulsive gambling.” Her centre is one of many that are now found in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and China.

These clinics treat those with gaming problems using an addiction model. They use detox, 12-step programs, abstinence training, and other methods common to addiction centres.

Notably, many people play well within healthy limits, and engage in the activity for diverse reasons. Stress relief, a way to spend time online with friends, or the enjoyment of an interactive storyline are all common reasons for playing. Whatever the reason for starting, when you can’t stop you have a problem. 

We are often critical of labels in mental health, for good reason; they can be misused. On the other hand, a label can sometimes be helpful. If we call it an addiction, then we recognize it as a problem worth solving.

– Contributing Writer: Bradley Kushner, The Trauma and Mental Health Report 

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report 

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: Ben Andreas Harding

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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Fear of Ebola Leaves Orphaned Children Abandoned

00Anxiety, Child Development, Cognition, Deception, Diet, Fear, Featured news, Grief, Health, Parenting, Politics, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Sleep, Stress, Teamwork, Trauma October, 14

13-year-old Jennette’s (name changed by UNICEF) grandmother died from Ebola. Shortly after attending the funeral, Jennette began to feel sick. When fever developed, she was taken to a local treatment center along with her mother and sister. All three family members tested positive for Ebola. Against all odds, they were successfully treated and released.

Jennette broke down in tears as she spoke about her experience as a victim of Ebola to Timothy La Rose, a Communication Specialist with UNICEF Guinea. Despite being healthy again, Jennette could not feel good about her recovery, now facing the stigma of being an ‘Ebola contact’.

“I cannot return home [to] my aunt who threatened me a lot when I was sick. So far she has never asked about my fate.”

The WHO (World Health Organization) estimates Ebola fatality rates between 25 and 90 percent. Passed on through contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person, symptoms are gruesome and can include internal and external bleeding. Currently, there are no approved vaccines, and the 2014 outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have created immense fear among those living in affected regions. Even in the United States, by October 2014 a handful of cases have quickly led to panic in some regions.

Jennette is only one of the many children facing the consequences of neglect due to the distrust surrounding Ebola survivors. UNICEF estimates that about 3,700 children have lost one or both parents to the current outbreak.

UNICEF’s regional director for West and Central Africa, Manuel Fontaine, said, “these children urgently need special attention and support; yet many of them feel unwanted and even abandoned.”

After surviving Ebola or losing a family member to the virus, these children are being shunned by surviving relatives due to fear of reinfection. “Orphans are usually taken in by a member of the extended family, but in some communities, the fear surrounding Ebola is becoming stronger than family ties,” Fontaine told CNN.

Orphans—some as young as two years old—are in the streets alone, lacking proper shelter, healthcare, and nutrition. Many of these children have undergone extreme trauma. Some have spent weeks in isolation wards without caregivers or proper mental healthcare. The New York Times reported a gut-wrenching scene:

In the next ward, a 4-year-old girl lay on the floor in urine, motionless, bleeding from her mouth, her eyes open. A corpse lay in the corner — a young woman, legs akimbo, who had died overnight. A small child stood on a cot watching as the team took the body away, stepping around a little boy lying immobile next to black buckets of vomit. They sprayed the body and the little girl on the floor with chlorine as they left.

Surviving children must also struggle with the grief of losing parents and siblings. “The hardest part of the job is telling parents their children have died or separating children from their parents,” Malcolm Hugo, a psychologist working in Sierra Leone, told the Guardian.

Many children are displaying symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, a condition that may develop after exposure to trauma. Intense grief, changes in eating and sleeping patterns, and extreme cognitive impairment are being reported in children who are most affected. Symptoms of depression and anxiety are also common.

The WHO reports that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia lack resources to help those affected by the outbreak.

Many humanitarian aid agencies like Doctors Without Borders have sent physicians and healthcare workers to help in the treatment and containment of the disease. However, very little psychological or medical help is available for orphaned survivors. UNICEF has appealed for $200 million to provide emergency assistance to affected families but has only received a quarter of the amount so far.

Currently, the organization is looking at unique ways to provide emotional support. In Liberia, they are working with the government to train mental health and social workers. UNICEF will also be working with Ebola survivors who are now immune to the disease to provide support to children quarantined in health centres.

In a statement to Al Jazeera, Fontaine explained, “Ebola is turning a basic human reaction like comforting a sick child into a potential death sentence.” Further work needs to be done to abolish the harmful distrust surrounding Ebola survivors, and strengthen family and community support. Without this support, orphaned children face a harsh and unwarranted emotional toll, alone.

– Contributing Writer: Khadija Bint Misbah, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today