Category: Happiness

Newsletter At CAMH Pet Therapy Helps...-068b08cc0811ed97f736ccd97551bc74c2a7bf44

At CAMH, Pet Therapy Helps Decrease Stigma

00Emotion Regulation, Featured news, Happiness, Law and Crime, Loneliness, Psychiatry, Therapy May, 16

Source: Ryan Faist, Used With Permission

When I tell others that I volunteer with my dog in a pet therapy program, they assume my work involves children or the elderly. I am not surprised: the benefits of animal-assisted therapy for these groups are widely known.

But my dog Rambo’s “patients” are quite different. He and I volunteer at an inpatient unit at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto. The people Rambo sees every Tuesday reside in the Secure Forensic Unit.

Accused of committing crimes ranging from shoplifting to homicide, these individuals all suffer from severe mental illness. Their treatment at CAMH is court-ordered, and they are routinely assessed by mental health professionals to determine if they can be held responsible for their crimes.

Theresa Conforti, the co-ordinator for Clinical Programs and Volunteer Resources at CAMH, explains how pets factor into the equation:

“For the past 10 years, CAMH has had their own Pet Therapy Program that is very unique and caters only to the clients at CAMH. The clients value the unconditional love and affection the dog gives them on a weekly basis. The importance is that this program bridges the gap for those who have had to leave their furry friends to come to treatment, and for those who will not be able to own a dog due to financial restrictions or housing situations. The weekly visits ease loneliness, improve communication, foster trust, decrease stress and anxiety, and are a lot of fun!”

The program assesses the volunteers for eligibility, while the dog goes through an evaluation with a professional service dog trainer. Conforti notes:

“This works because those interested in volunteering at CAMH are not here to stigmatize our patients, rather they are here to make a difference and di-stigmatize mental illness.”

To say the experience has been rewarding for volunteers like me would be an understatement. Patients are happy to see Rambo, talk to him, pet him, or just be in the same room with him. Not only does he give them a break from their daily routines and the confinement of their unit at CAMH, but he also offers unconditional affection to those in the program.

And while the benefits of pet therapy are numerous, unconditional affection is the critical point here.

When people find out where Rambo and I volunteer, I am often asked whether I fear for our safety, highlighting the common misconception that individuals with severe mental illness are dangerous and violent. Stereotypes like this further perpetuate mental illness stigmatization.

But animals do not judge. They do not care about physical appearance, diagnoses, or criminal history. Conforti recalls:

“One of our dogs went on a unit and a selective mute client—a client who chooses not to speak—had knelt down and whispered in the dog’s ear. No one heard what the client said to the dog, but it was the first time the client had ever spoken. And he had chosen to do so to a dog that will not judge nor will expect much from him. I love that story because it shows that dogs are there to help, love unconditionally, and, most importantly, they do not stigmatize.”

This may be one reason animal-assisted therapy programs are gaining popularity globally. A program in Bollate, Italy, has introduced the use of dog therapy for prison inmates. Valeria Gallinotti, the founder of the program, explains:

“My dream was to organize pet therapy sessions in prison because it’s the one place where there is a total lack of affection, where dogs can create calm, good moods, emotional bonds and physical contact.”

The program has been a hit with inmates, who look forward to the dogs’ visits and have formed a sense of close companionship with them. When asked who his favourite dog was, one of the inmates said:

“Carmela arrived and didn’t know what to do. She was so scared, sort of like us when we arrive in prison. Now, like us, she too is getting used to the experience.” 

Whether part of psychotherapy, physiotherapy, or a prison inmate program, animal assisted therapy can give people the extra motivation needed to get through the challenge of treatment or confinement. Patients and clinicians alike have a lot to gain from therapists like Rambo.

– Essi Numminen, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller 

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Patients with Misophonia require help and understanding

Patients with Misophonia require help and understanding

10Empathy, Featured news, Happiness, Loneliness, Neuroscience, Relationships, Social Life November, 15

Source: Rick&Brenda Beerhorst on Flickr

Some people find the sound of nails on a chalkboard or the rumbling of a snoring spouse irritating, but what if the sound of someone breathing sent you into a fit of rage?  This is a reality for many sufferers of misophonia.

Only recently garnering attention from researchers, misophonia is a condition where individuals have a decreased tolerance for certain sounds.  Chewing, coughing, scratching, or pen clicking can provoke an immediate aggressive response.  Verbal tantrums are common and in severe cases, sufferers may even physically attack the object or person causing the noise.

“I turn my eyes to face the source of the noise and feel myself glaring at that person in rage,” misophonia sufferer Shannon Morell explains to The Daily Record.  “The only thing I can think about is removing myself from the situation as quickly as possible.”

Many sufferers begin to structure their lives around their struggle with the disorder and avoid triggers by socially isolating themselves.  Public spaces like restaurants or parks are readily avoided and in extreme cases, eating or sleeping in the same room as a loved one can feel impossible.  Even establishing or maintaining relationships is very challenging.

Misophonia can interfere with academic and work performance.  In a study by PhD candidate Miren Edelstein at the University of California in San Diego, patients reported trouble concentrating in class or at work due to distraction from trigger noises.  In some cases, students may resort to isolating themselves, taking their courses online.

David Holmes tells The Daily Record that he finds refuge in using headphones (whenever possible) to block out external noises while at work.

The cause of misophonia is currently believed to be neurological, where the patient’s limbic (emotional) and autonomic nervous systems are more closely connected with the auditory system.  This may be why hearing a disliked sound elicits an emotional response.  Aage Moller, a neuroscientist at the University of Texas, describes it as a complication in how the brain processes auditory stimuli.

Research shows that misophonia usually develops at puberty and tends to worsen into adulthood.

But misophonia is still greatly misunderstood.  There is a lack of research examining its causes or possible treatments.  There is no cure, and some critics even wonder if misophonia should be considered a disorder at all, arguing instead that it’s just a personality quirk.

While it seems there is little help available for people with the disorder, Misophonia UK, an organization dedicated to providing information and support to misophonia sufferers, outlines a number of interventions.

Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) involves teaching patients how to slowly build sound tolerance, while Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) focuses on changing negative attitudes that can contribute to the severity of the disorder.  In some cases, hypnosis can be used to relax individuals.  Breathing techniques are also taught so patients can learn to sooth themselves when hearing their trigger noises.

Keeping a diary to record feelings and providing education to loved ones are also strategies recommended by Misophonia UK.  Support groups and online forums like UK Misophonia, Selective Sound Sensitivity, and Misophonia Support also provide a way for sufferers to share their experiences and interact with others.

Researchers in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Amsterdam say that DSM classification may be necessary to pave the way for more recognition and research on the disorder, and that if misophonia is not regarded as a distinct psychiatric condition, it should at least be viewed as part of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorder (OCSD).

The prevalence of misophonia is currently not documented, and it seems few seek help.  Suffers of misophonia can only do so much on their own before the disorder starts intruding on their lives.

– Anjali Wisnarama, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Avatar Therapy Shows Promise For Voice Hearers

Avatar Therapy Shows Promise For Voice Hearers

00Depression, Featured news, Happiness, Health, Identity, Therapy October, 15

Source: Surian Soosay/Flickr

Auditory hallucinations are difficult to treat.  People show a wide range of response to antipsychotics.  And, the medications are associated with negative side effects. Psychological treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may help one cope with hearing voices, but they are usually not effective in quieting them or reducing their frequency.

An alternative method for voice hearers is a new computer–based approach called Avatar Therapy, developed at the University College London (UCL) by Emeritus Professor Julian Leff and his research team.

Avatar Therapy works as a collaborative process.  With the therapist, the patient constructs a digital representation of the face and voice that best suits one of their heard voices.  The therapist speaks as if they are one of the patient’s persecutors, and this speech is synced with the movement of the avatar’s lips, allowing for the patient to confront a simulation of their auditory hallucination in real time.

Patients have the opportunity to enter into a dialogue with their voices and learn how to gradually take control of the hallucinations.  By giving invisible and often menacing entities a face, these experiences can become easier to confront.  The therapeutic process allows for a safe space where the patient may practice  standing up to their voices in preparation for when they occur.

While research into Avatar therapy’s efficacy is limited to one pilot study, the results show promise.  After engaging 17 patients (who had not responded to medications) in up to seven 30 minute sessions of the therapy, patients experienced a significant reduction in the frequency and intensity of auditory hallucinations.

Also noteworthy is the abrupt cessation of voices in three of the patients who reported having experienced auditory hallucinations for 16, 13, and 3.5 years.  A follow up with these patients confirmed this cessation had continued three months after the pilot study. Patients also experienced a decrease in depression and suicidal thinking; encouraging results, since depression is often seen in cases of schizophrenia, and 1 in 10 of those diagnosed attempt suicide.

Patients were also given an MP3 recording of the conversations with their avatar from all the therapy sessions.  They were encouraged to listen to the recordings whenever they were feeling harassed by the voices.  This may have also contributed to their continued improvement.

Despite these preliminary results, Leff and his team caution that this approach may not be for everyone.  The study began with 26 patients, 9 of which dropped out.  The researchers attribute this drop out rate to the fear instilled in the patients by their voices and the threats uttered by them.

If this treatment is to have any effect, the patient must first be able to exercise a certain degree of tolerance over the voices, and be willing to manage the distress they produce. That said, another obstacle Leff and his colleagues face is working on ways to help patients develop stress management skills, so that more individuals may benefit from this approach.

The method may even open doors for further innovations in treatments for voice hearers, approaches that venture towards listening, understanding, and confronting one’s voices rather than suppressing them.

– Pavan Brar, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright: Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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When You’re Gone: Deployment Effects On Parenting

00Anger, Attachment, Empathy, Featured news, Happiness, Marriage, Parenting, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Stress January, 15

Deployment

“It’s hard, but I think it must be harder for my husband, being away for so long. He missed a lot of firsts when the girls were babies. Thankfully, between deployments he got to see with one, the things he missed with the other.”

Blair Johnson, mother of two, Mackenzie age 5, and Macey age 2, has experienced firsthand the hardships of having a spouse away on deployment, as her husband Nathan, an American marine, has spent half of their marriage overseas and in training.

Deployment, the movement of troops overseas for military action, is a reality for many families in the U.S. and Canada. The American military is deployed in more than 150 countries around the world, with the majority of troops in combat zones.

Deployed soldiers often face great emotional strain as they are forced to separate from their spouses and children. The separation, distance, and heartache make parenting in these families an enormous challenge. Children, who tend to be most sensitive to changes within the family, may react strongly.

“For me, it has been harder with my older daughter during Nathan’s most recent deployment. Since she is such a Daddy’s girl, she acted out a lot in trying to deal with her father being away. She would give me a hard time, almost like she thought I could control whether or not her Dad was home.”

Amy Drummet, a researcher at the University of Missouri explains that military families experience stress at three main junctions: relocation, separation, and reunion. As Blair recalls, separations bring on feelings of parental inadequacy and guilt. “It’s the feeling that I can’t give my girls everything they need when it’s just me; they miss their Dad and I can’t do anything to bring him home.”

To complicate matters, the return home can be just as problematic. “The last time he came back was different than the previous ones. It took a lot longer for everything to return to normal. Jumping back into the role of a full-time father was harder for him.”

One in every five soldiers returning home from Iraq or Afghanistan may suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This prevalence makes it difficult for the returning parent to carry on normal parenting responsibilities. “When Nathan returned, he was very jumpy, angry, and agitated with every loud sound he heard. He would constantly reach for his gun even though he didn’t even have it once he returned home. He had to learn to let go of the defense mode he was used to.”

Coming home presents many obstacles the family must overcome in order to settle back into a normal and familiar way of living. Apart from the joy of having one’s partner return home, there is plenty of work that must be done to adapt to previous family roles.

“The girls hold a lot of anger towards me after he is home and it is heart breaking; they don’t want anything to do with me for the most part. Since I am the main disciplinarian the majority of the time, they see him as the good guy. They want to spend every moment with him when he is around, because they just miss him so much when he’s gone.”

“I have been blessed to have parents with whom we can stay during his deployments. For us, it helped a bit in filling the void of Daddy being gone. We take advantage of the time we can spend together, so all the family can be a part in their lives,” says Blair.

Military children are especially vulnerable during a deployment due to separation from their parent, a perceived sense of danger, and an increased sense of uncertainty. “I asked Mackenzie what she thought Daddy was doing when he is deployed and she said, ‘he is working…and fighting the bad guys.’”

Despite the difficulties, Blair insists that there are good aspects to deployment, “You have to make a choice to either let it affect you in a bad way or a good one. You can use that time to grow closer instead of growing distant. It is all a matter of choice. I believe something good can come from any situation, no matter how terrible it is. It makes you a stronger person and it helps you realize just how much you can handle.”

Deployment drastically affects family life. While it requires all family members to readjust, children, who are more prone to being agitated by their changing circumstances, may find it harder to cope. As parents battle their own issues and uncertainties, they may unintentionally miss signs that their children need them.

So deployment may have an effect on the attachment with not only the deployed parent, but also with the parent who stays behind. The confusion and uncertainty experienced by children should be treated with love and understanding, while maintaining their normal routine.

“Parents have their bad days, but it’s important to cry, let it all out, and then move on. Happiness is an everyday choice, and choosing it doesn’t mean you miss your spouse any less.”

– Contributing Writer: Noam Bin Noon, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

 – Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

 Copyright Robert T. Muller

 Photo Credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/dvids/3522556401/

This article was originally published on Psychology Today