Category: Stress

123-a1d0b5fb6538cb6df543ba48925a362c5b04f620

Exercising Your Way to PTSD Recovery

00Featured news, Health, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Stress, Therapy, Trauma August, 16

Source: Wounded Warrior Regiment on Flickr

Recent headlines about suicide, domestic violence, and shootings have brought public awareness to the mental health strain that is placed on the men and women in our military.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can drastically alter the lives of sufferers and is particularly common in veterans. The condition has been documented in 8% of Canadian soldiers who served between 2001 and 2008 in Afghanistan.

Effects include flashbacks, high anxiety, personality changes, startle responses, mood swings, and disturbed sleep, with typical treatment involving antidepressants and psychotherapy.

In an effort to develop treatment options, many are looking to physical remedies such as intense exercise to help those suffering from PTSD. We know that those who exercise regularly are less likely to suffer from anxiety and depression. But research by Mathew Fetzner and Gordon Asmundson at the University of Regina found that two weeks of stationary biking can be helpful in reducing PTSD symptoms and improving mood.

Further, researchers at Loughborough University have reviewed multiple studies that looked at the impact of sport and physical activity on combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Their findings: physical activity enhances well-being in veterans by reducing symptoms and improving coping strategies.

Symptom reduction in these studies seems to occur through a renewed sense of determination and hope, increased quality of life, and the cultivation of positive self-identity. The researchers explain that participating in sports and physical activities helps combat veterans gain or regain a sense of achievement.

Exercise also increases respiratory sinus arrhythmia. This naturally occurring variation in heart rate is linked to higher levels of emotion-focused coping—an ability disrupted in those with PTSD.

Treatment adherence is often a problem for PTSD sufferers, given that formal therapy is not always appealing to them, Fetzner claims. Low dropout rates of therapies involving physical exercise make the intervention feasible.

But the positive effects of intensive exercise on PTSD may be suitable only for some combat veterans: those with the physical ability to participate.

According to Veterans Affairs in Canada, psychiatric conditions are the second-most common cause of disability among returning soldiers. Debilitating physical injuries, such as amputations, and traumatic brain and spinal chord injuries are more common. And in addition to PTSD, the two most common mental health problems among returning soldiers are substance abuse and depression. More than 80 percent of the time, combat veterans have more than one diagnosis.

While aerobic exercise significantly reduces depression symptoms and helps prevent the abuse of drugs, the high rates of physical impairment in returning soldiers complicates the optimistic picture of exercise’s benefits on PTSD.

Less physically demanding exercise may be an option. Recent research shows that yoga, for example, may help individuals with PTSD focus on the present, reduce rumination, and combat negative thinking patterns.

While strenuous physical exercise may only be helpful for some returning veterans, milder forms of exercise and physiotherapy may be a useful adjunct to traditional treatment for many others. In either case, it is important for researchers and clinicians alike to take note of alternative ways of treating PTSD in an effort to provide options to those affected with the debilitating disorder.

–Veerpal Bambrah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

–Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Feature3-470x260-fca2486cfa635cefae7ddcd63811d0e591cc47a3

Transgender Homeless Youth Victimized by Shelter System

00Bias, Featured news, Gender, Resilience, Sexual Orientation, Stress, Transgender, Trauma August, 16

Source: RAJVINOTH JOTHINEELAK on Flickr

At the age of three, Gale started to challenge gender norms, insisting on wearing dresses and tiaras; by age four, sobbing at his mirror image wearing pants. He began calling himself “a boy and a girl,” and later chose to identify with the female gender.

In 2010, Gale was found dead on an Austin Texas sidewalk, right outside a homeless shelter, having been denied housing. Shelter staff considered Gale’s male genitalia inconsistent with a female identity. She would have to stay with the other men. Unable to accept these terms, Gale decided to spend the night on the sidewalk, but froze to death.

A heartbreaking story; across the U.S. and Canada, it is hardly unique.

Every year, new names are added to the memorial list of transsexual people who have been killed due to transphobia. Founder of the Transgender Day of Remembrance, Gwendolyn Ann Smith explains, over the last decade at least one person has died every month due to anti-transgender hatred and violence.

Research conducted by the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness shows the reality transgender individuals face: elevated levels of daily stress resulting in missed school and work, addiction, self-harm, and chronic mental illnesses, which can lead to poverty and an inability to build a healthy, successful life.

The most vulnerable of the transgender community are its youth. Many are thrown out of their homes by parents unable to accept their gender identity. Many leave to escape daily abuse.

There is a much higher prevalence of homelessness among transgender youth as compared to other minorities.

In Canada, many transgender youth from rural areas leave unsafe home environments and come to Toronto in hopes of discovering freedom and acceptance in the city, even if it means spending a few days or weeks on the streets. But they are quickly exposed to the harsh reality of discrimination in the shelter system.

Housing discrimination is a significant concern for the transgender community. Most homeless shelters are segregated by sex. Shared shelters usually separate women and men by placing them on different floors.

Placement on the male or female floor is based on shelter staff perceptions of the youth, regardless of which gender the individual identifies with. This is problematic for those whose gender identity is not congruent with their biological sex.

Forcing transgender individuals into shelter housing with those who identify as the opposite gender falls under the definition of transphobia, the consequences on physical, mental, and emotional health are severe.

Research has shown that transgender youth are three times more likely to develop major depression, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Transphobia can also lead to greater risk of developing substance abuse and self-harming tendencies.

A large study called TransPULSE investigated the current health conditions of transgender people in Canada. Results showed that, in Ontario, 77% of the transgender population had seriously considered suicide, while 45% had made an attempt to end their life. Transgender homeless youth in particular were found to be at greater risk for suicide, and LGBT homeless youth committing suicide at a rate 62% higher than heterosexual homeless youth. Based on the New York City model of the two LGBTQ shelters, the Ali Forney Center and the New Alternatives Centre, Toronto will soon be welcoming its first 54-bed shelter reserved for the gender-queer population, a promising achievement but not nearly enough.

There are many social and personal issues that accompany being young and transgender. While the personal trauma suffered by these individuals will only change with shifting views, it is up to us to provide safe spaces for this at-risk population.

– Sara Benceković, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Feature-12-470x260_0-e15732e4a8b608b3ea40e8b6e86c607f6cf7984c

Mental Healthcare Lacking for Small Business Owners

00Anxiety, Burnout, Depression, Featured news, Health, Stress, Work July, 16

Source: Gary Suaer-Thompson on Flickr

Being your own boss, doing something you love, having control over your own schedule. These are only a few reasons why people choose to start their own business.

But the reality many small business owners face is far less appealing. Financial stress, professional isolation, long hours, and blurred boundaries between work and family life can take a toll on mental health.

Although there is a growing focus on mental health in the workplace, programs often target large companies with thousands of employees, providing fewer options for those running small businesses.

Jeffrey Markus, entrepreneur and founder of Daddyo’s Pasta and Salads restaurant in Toronto, knows firsthand the psychological impact of running a small business. When his restaurant was struggling, he took it personally:

“I was a go-getter and an entrepreneur. But as business slowed I was more and more affected. I couldn’t separate myself from my business. It was the worst experience of my life. It put a strain on my marriage and I missed out on seeing my daughter grow up, which was very difficult for me.”

In Markus’ opinion, small business owners are overlooked when it comes to providing support for people in the workplace.

And he may well be right. While employees in larger organizations often have access to human resource support or programs, business owners and entrepreneurs are left to deal with stress on their own.

Associate professor Angela Martin of the Tasmanian School of Business and Economics in Australia, conducts research on the mental health of small business owners. She believes that while there is some evidence of a growing awareness for providing mentally healthy workplaces among larger businesses, it may not be helping entrepreneurs:

“Small business owners need access to support, but the current workplace mental health programs are missing all of these people. These models don’t work in small business as they do in a larger organization. They don’t translate to a single person.”

Martin’s research has been used to develop a set of preventative guidelines that help small and medium business owners recognize the signs and symptoms of mental health issues in themselves and their employees. But she is working in an under-investigated field:

“There is no big systematically collected data, so we don’t know how many people are affected and what impact it is having on small and medium business.”

Another issue is that while small businesses are often seen as one type of industry, they are actually quite diverse—ranging from building contractors and health professionals to artists and online retailers. These differences mean that the time and cost constraints faced by individual business owners are also different.

In Jeffrey Markus’ experience, the number of small business owners in distress is alarmingly high. But after facing his own share of crises, he has learned to care for himself as well as his business:

“People are borrowing against their homes which can cause marital issues. Many marriages break down when husbands and wives clash within a family business. But I had to reframe my thinking and approach to things. I had to get the entrepreneur life to work for me, not against me.”

Markus has learned a few simple things that go a long way, such as saying no to the prospect of expanding his restaurant to multiple locations, remembering to leave time for relaxation and self-care, and being more present within the lives of his family and close friends.

In considering his experience, he notes that community and peer support were key in helping him get through tough times.

Rebekah Lambert, a good friend of Markus, is an entrepreneur working to help other small business owners connect with each other and find support. Her company, The Freelance Jungle, is an Australian initiative providing community support and helping people manage the stress of running a business:

“I found a lot of people are having a hard time. I saw a lot of them spending money on being a businessperson, but not on getting proper support.”

Markus agrees that small business owners need to support each other due to the absence of government programs. This is particularly important since business owners’ poor mental health will affect not only their lives but also the mental health of their employees.

Potential solutions being examined by Lambert and other entrepreneurs are online associations and support networks, local meetup groups, and mentorship programs. With a current lack of formal mental health programs, it is important that business owners learn to look after themselves in the meantime.

– Veerpal Bambrah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Feature1-470x260-95f666d2107d69a4091ab0da01c61209576beb19

Sexual Freedom: Only Part of the Equation for LGBTQ Refugees

00Anxiety, Embarrassment, Featured news, Loneliness, Resilience, Sexual Orientation, Stress July, 16

Source: Eric Constantineau on Flickr

Montgomry Danton is a gay man from the Caribbean island of Saint Lucia. In June 2014, he fled persecution in his home country to claim asylum in Canada because of his sexual orientation. By September 2014, he had been granted refugee status under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act of 2002.

Leading up to his official hearing at the Immigration and Refugee Board, Danton experienced the fear and anxiety common to many LGBTQ asylum seekers. He reported feeling isolated and depressed, being unable to sleep or eat, and experiencing thoughts of suicide. At one point, Danton wanted to give up and return home to Saint Lucia, despite the danger this would have posed to his life.

One might imagine that after a successful refugee hearing, the difficult part would be over. It would be time to start building a new life in Canada. But for Danton, and others like him, the struggle to become established in a new country can be as stressful as the claims process itself. In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Danton said:

“It was a relief to know I can actually stay in Canada to be who I really am and be comfortable with myself and also my sexuality. People think coming to Canada is a good thing, you know? But you have to prepare for challenges.”

Some challenges are broad, ranging from finding affordable housing, to gaining employment, to securing basic necessities like food and clothing. But others are more specific to individual circumstances, including language barriers and cultural unfamiliarity.

LGBTQ refugees, in particular, may continue to experience social isolation, perpetuating a sense of danger and persecution. Individuals who have undergone physical and emotional trauma may not be able to move past their experience and attain a sense of personal safety until they establish a support system in Canada.

For Danton, building a new life has been stressful, edging him back towards the depression he experienced during the refugee claims process, and before that, in Saint Lucia:

“There are certain times I just wish I was back home because if I was back home I would be comfortable living my life.”

He, like many others, has been struggling with the concept of ‘home.’

In Saint Lucia, Danton did personally meaningful work as an outreach officer for the LGBTQ organization, United and Strong, and lived with his partner. In Canada, he is unemployed, has moved four times since his arrival, and has been dependent on the assistance of acquaintances and friends.

“In Saint Lucia, if it was safe for me to be who I am, to show that I’m gay, I wouldn’t think about coming to Canada. I would have stayed.”

For Danton, and for other LGBTQ asylum seekers, safety, security, and freedom of expression are only a few aspects of a meaningful existence. As a refugee, he has had to sacrifice many other significant parts of his former life, which is a common tradeoff for many in his position.

And the choice between freedom of sexual expression and stable housing and employment is an unimaginably difficult one to make, as is the choice between safety from persecution and the comforting presence of friends and family back home.

Still, Danton emphasizes his gratitude and appreciation at being granted asylum. He is happy to feel safe, to be far from the persecution he experienced on a daily basis in Saint Lucia, to be accepted into a country like Canada where he hopes to reclaim his life.

“At the end of the day, I’m still grateful and I’m trying my best to not let the challenges get the best of me. I’m thinking about moving forward.”

– Sarah Hall, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Feature-470x260_1-309f9f70929fda0c6e1c2755a5aaa8632409d10c

Failed Mental Health App Highlights Pitfalls of Social Media

00Depression, Featured news, Health, Media, Social Networking, Stress, Suicide July, 16

Source: Jayson Lorenzen on Flickr

On October 29, 2014, The Samaritans—a suicide-prevention organization in the United Kingdom—launched an app for Twitter called Samaritans Radar. Its purpose: to detect alarming, depressive, and suicidal tweets to help prevent suicide. Less than a week later, the app was suspended due to public outcry over privacy concerns.

Social media are being used increasingly for marketing and advertising, with privacy a growing issue. Many marketing apps, like Hootsuite, track users’ social media posts in fairly covert ways. Yet, when social media pits privacy against mental health, ethical conflicts are concerning.

Traditionally in mental healthcare, there are few reasons to break confidentiality between client and therapist, such as harm to self or others.

The Samaritans Radar app worked by tracking tweets from every account the individual follows on Twitter. If alarming content was found—ranging from “I’m tired of being alone.” to “Feeling sad.”—the app would notify the user by email. Along with the email, came a link to the flagged tweet, as well as suicide intervention and prevention resources that the individual could provide to the writer of the alarming content.

At the launch of the app, the organization said that:

“Samaritans Radar turns your social net into a safety net by flagging potentially worrying tweets from friends, that you may have missed, giving you the option to reach out and support them.”

The app was quickly criticized for allowing users to track people’s tweets without their awareness or consent. The Samaritans replied by highlighting that everything posted on Twitter and all the information the app uses was public, and that it was up to the app’s user to decide whether they wanted to respond to any particular tweet.

Adrian Short, who started a petition to shut down Samaritans Radar, stated that it “breaches people’s privacy by collecting, processing, and sharing sensitive information about their emotional and mental health status.”

He also noted that the app may be used by less-than-scrupulous individuals for all sorts of purposes, not just helping individuals overcome mental health issues.

The Samaritans addressed these concerns by launching a “white list,” where people could sign up if they wanted to deny the app access to tracking their account. Many did not see this as a solution since opting out would require people to be aware of the app’s existence, leaving privacy in jeopardy.

But the problem that the app was trying to address is not trivial. In the UK, where the Samaritans are based, suicide is the leading cause of death among males under the age of 35. A free mobile app could be an easily accessible way to reach out to people who are alone and lacking other forms of support.

As one of the few supporters of the app, Hannah Jane Parkinson wrote for the Guardian:

“It is estimated that 9.6% of young people aged 5-16 have a clinically recognised mental health condition. Anything that helps to better this situation is great, and particularly as it is crucial to catch mental ill health early on.”

Yet as Adrian Short and others pointed out, this same easy access also poses potential threats. Internet bullying is common, especially among vulnerable users that Samaritans Radar targeted. The app could therefore be used for nefarious purposes.

“The app makes people more vulnerable online. While this could be used legitimately by a friend to offer help, it also gives stalkers and bullies and opportunity to increase their levels of abuse at a time when their targets are especially down,” says Adrian Short.

The app was an attempt to reach out to people in need of emotional support and to raise awareness about mental health using new media. But it highlighted the potential pitfalls of such platforms for dealing with mental health concerns. While the incidence of mental health problems is concerning, putting peoples’ mental health into the hands of anyone with access to a smartphone is naïve.

Perhaps this unsuccessful launch did successfully show that a greater understanding of social media users and platforms is needed before apps like Samaritan Radar can become commonplace.

– Essi Numminen, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

1 Rush prevention program...-874ab2b753406b27797c1c0b175aae80f4f3a528

RUSH Prevention Program Helping Children of Bipolar Parents

00Bipolar Disorder, Emotion Regulation, Environment, Featured news, Health, Parenting, Stress, Therapy May, 16

Source: Rolands Lakis on Flickr

“It was just kind of not knowing what you were going to get every time. Emotionally when I was younger, I always cared about her. She was my mom. As I grew up, I kind of became disconnected because I didn’t know the real her. I only knew her from her diagnosis. I only knew her emotions. I didn’t know the real her.”

– Steven, child of a bipolar mother.

In 2004, the World Health Organization named Bipolar Disorder (BD) the seventh-leading cause of ‘disease burden’ for women between 15 and 44, a measure that combines years of life lost to early death and years lost to living in subpar health. Public Health Agency of Canada reports that BD occurs in one percent of Canadians, and their reported mortality rates are two to three times greater than the general population.

The disorder is marked by alternating periods of manic euphoria and intense depression. In a manic state, people experience elevated moods, racing thoughts, and sleeplessness, in addition to overspending and engaging in risky sex. The depressive phases make for overwhelming feelings of sadness, withdrawal, and thoughts of death and suicide.

Research has related BD to aggressive behaviour, substance abuse, hypersexuality, and suicide. But more recently, studies have been showing the kinds of challenges faced by children of those diagnosed with the disorder.

The Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study reports that children of bipolar parents are 14 times more likely to develop bipolar spectrum disorder. Children of two bipolar parents are at an even higher risk.

And these children are also more vulnerable to psychosocial problems. A study by Mark Ellenbogen at Concordia University finds them at greater risk for problems with emotional regulation and behavioral control.

Ellenbogen and colleagues have explained how stressful home environments can alter biology to influence mood disorders in adolescents and adults.

In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Ellenbogen stated that OBD individuals (that is, offspring of parents with bipolar disorder) show higher levels of daytime cortisol, a hormone that is released during times of stress. OBD are psychologically more sensitive to stresses in their natural environments.

“We have found that high cortisol levels in offspring may represent a biomarker of risk for affective disorders, particularly in vulnerable populations like the OBD. We believe that these changes in cortisol levels can be linked to stress, inconsistent parenting practices and disorganization in the family environment.”

Reducing the stressors in early childhood may help decrease elevated levels of cortisol, and ward off the development of BD and other problems.

Recognizing the need for early intervention, Ellenbogen initiated a pilot prevention program, Reducing Unwanted Stress in the Home (RUSH), which targets bipolar parents and their vulnerable children between six and eleven.

An assessment measures salivary cortisol, looks at the family environment, and evaluates the child’s behaviour. Then parents and children participate in weekly sessions.

With parents, the focus is on improving communication and problem-solving skills, and increasing structure and consistency in the home. With children, they teach skills for understanding and coping with stress through age–appropriate exercises and educational games.

“The goal of the RUSH program is to prevent the development of affective disorders and other mental disorders by intervening in families well before these serious mental disorders begin. That is, this is a prevention program for children at high risk of developing debilitating mental disorders.”

To date, children and parents have been responding well, but the research is ongoing.

Programs like RUSH aim to prevent the development of mental illness in vulnerable youth. And an ounce of prevention can mean a whole lot to quality of life down the road.

– Eleenor Abraham, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

South Koreans Use Suicide to Preserve Honour.

South Koreans Use Suicide to Preserve Honour.

10Depression, Embarrassment, Featured news, Health, Stress, Suicide, Therapy December, 15

Source: Tanla Sevillano on Flickr

The suicide of a celebrity comes as a shock to fans. In the wake of Robin Williams’ death, there was an outpouring of grief. But suicide, like many aspects of mental health, varies across cultures. In October 2008, one of South Korea’s leading actresses and national icons, Choi Jin-Sil, hanged herself.

The importance of honour in Korean culture is evident throughout Choi’s story. She often spoke of the stigma of being a divorced, single mother in the public eye, which a national entertainment columnist likened to having a personality disorder. The divorce itself was a result of domestic abuse, yet a court cited Choi’s “failure of her contractual obligations” and inability to “maintain dignity and proper social and moral honour” in its ruling.

Choi’s death was only the beginning. It led to a wave of sympathy suicides in 2008, causing a 70% increase in suicides that October. In March 2010, Choi’s younger brother killed himself by hanging, and her ex-husband also hanged himself in January 2013.

This rash of suicides is exemplary of a common Korean belief: Psychological treatment is viewed with skepticism. An interview withKyooseob Ha, a psychiatrist with Seoul National University of Medicine, describes how Koreans are averse to seeking therapy, even for severe depression. Admitting to depression is seen as a character failure, shameful to the family. It is often concealed.

The same cultural norms dictate that preserving family reputation is paramount. Families asked about their loved ones who suffered from depression and committed suicide do not wish to speak about it. A common saying, “do not kill the person twice,” means that even if the person is gone, his or her “public face” can still be ruined.

Psychologist Hyong-soo Kim at Chosun University says this public face holds such sway that even in cases where people choose to see a therapist, Koreans will pay in cash to avoid their insurance companies finding out.

Research by psychiatrist Dae-hyun Yoon, at Seoul National University and the Korean Association for Suicide, shows that Koreans are more likely to seek the aid of a priest, psychic, or room salon (where a female bartender or hostess will listen to problems) than a professional therapist. Westernization hasn’t extended to mental health.

At the same time, Korea’s depression rates continue to rise and 80-90 percent of suicides are related to depression.

Refusal of professional treatment, along with wide public acceptance of suicide may be why South Korea was ranked by the Washington Post in 2010 as having the world’s highest suicide rate(in 2014, it ranked third-highest, following Greenland and Lithuania).

This has motivated South Korea’s government to develop intervention programs such as jump-barriers on bridges, glass doors along subway platforms, and 24-hour government-funded suicide hotlines. Though progress has been slow, some Koreans believe the traditional mindset to be flawed.

Currently, the Korean government is increasing funding for mental healthcare and suicide awareness. Online monitoring has led to the closure websites that encourage people to kill themselves. Gramoxone (a pesticide that was a common means of committing suicide) is now banned in Korea. And an expanded state pension system, as well as aid from major corporations, are giving less fortunate individuals the ability to access mental health services they could not previously afford.

Turning traditional ideals on themselves, public service messages now emphasize that the shame of a loved one committing suicide outweighs whatever circumstances led them to consider suicide in the first place. They focus on the idea that honour can be regained by living.

Local therapists know first-hand the values and lifestyles of their clients, and culturally based therapeutic approaches are key to curbing South Korea’s suicide rate. In a country where honour is tantamount to life, solutions must build on tradition, not break it.

– Olivia Jon, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Officers with PTSD at Greater Risk for Police Brutality

Officers with PTSD at Greater Risk for Police Brutality

00Featured news, Health, Law and Crime, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Stress, Therapy, Trauma November, 15

Source: Thomas Hawk on Flickr

After dropping off a colleague on September 14, 2013, Jonathan Ferrell began his journey home.  That night, the North Carolina highway proved more treacherous than he expected.  He veered off an embankment and, shaken but uninjured, made his way over to the first house he saw to get help.  But residents mistook his intentions and called police.

It’s unclear what transpired when three officers arrived 11 minutes later.  In moments, Ferrell lay dead with 10 bullets in his body.  Autopsy reports suggest he was on his knees when shot.

Victims of police brutality have been people of all ages, races, and walks of life – from 84-year old Kang Wong, beaten for jaywalking, to a 14-year-old boy disfigured for shoplifting, to two married university professors, one of whom had undergone open heart surgery only several days prior to being struck and dragged off in handcuffs.

Police violence does not confine itself to any one area.  Hundreds of protestors suffered physical and sexual assaults at the hands of police officers during the 2010 Canadian G20 protests.  Civilians were killed and publicly tortured by police as protestors pushed for democracy in Kiev, Ukraine.

But what puts officers at risk for engaging in police brutality?  New research from the Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Science points to links between police brutality and pre-existing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the officers themselves.

PTSD is a diagnosis traditionally used for victims of overwhelmingly stressful experiences, such as rape, combat, and natural disasters.  Many victims of police violence often experience PTSD, which manifests as severe agoraphobia and paralyzing panic attacks.  This creates a downward spiral of isolation, depression, and even suicide.  Treatments for PTSD involve facing the trauma and reconsolidating the memories in more constructive ways.

But the link between PTSD and police violence appears to be a two-way street.  Not only does police brutality have the potential to cause PTSD in victims, but according to psychiatrist, Ben Green of the University of Liverpool, violence among officers may be exacerbated by their prior experiences, their previous high incidence of PTSD, which stems from being exposed to many of the same traumas as soldiers in combat.

Yet because mental health issues continue to be a source of stigma in law enforcement, many police officers suffer in silence.

In the U.S., police officer deaths from gun violence and other causes have gone up by 42% from 2009 to 2011.  And each year, 10% of all law enforcement officials are assaulted, with a quarter of them sustaining injuries.  At the same time, public pressure on police to restrain their use of firearms against the public has reduced the number of bullets fired by officers by over 50% in the last decade.  This means that police officers are finding themselves in life-threatening situations more often, but are less able to respond, creating a state of fear and tension, factors that give rise to PTSD.

For the public, the danger of police officers developing PTSD comes from an increased startle response, suspicion, and aggressiveness.  These tendencies can make officers more likely to lash out at the public and result in the deadly overreactions that sometimes occur.

Symptoms of PTSD are often triggered by the same situations that caused the trauma.  This may be why officers who kill unarmed civilians report feeling confused and suffer from memory loss when they lose control.

While many officers cite unmanageable work stress and traumatic incidents suffered on the job when explaining misconduct, few law enforcement agencies offer comprehensive mental health care for dealing with PTSD.  Among the officers themselves, talking about trauma and mental health is oftentimes discouraged, leaving sufferers isolated or stigmatized.  At the same time, the justice system also serves to cover up the problem, imposing minimum punishments for officers and giving victims of police brutality no closure to initiate their own recoveries.

Better mental health awareness would help.  Allowing police officers to speak freely and receive treatment for their job-related stress would reduce PTSD.  Teaching fellow officers to recognize the symptoms of PTSD –including social withdrawal, personality changes, and poor decision-making – would allow them to help their partners and coworkers before problems escalate.

Giving officers access to treatment and support early on can reduce future incidents of police brutality and ensure that they get the help they need.

And understanding that police officers are often victims of violence is important for continued public trust in law enforcement.  The key is education and access to treatment.

– Nick Zabara, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma & Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Sensory Sensitivity Can Strain Parent-Child Relations

Sensory Sensitivity Can Strain Parent-Child Relations

00Attachment, Child Development, Featured news, Parenting, Relationships, Stress, Trauma November, 15

Source: Camp ASCCA/Flickr

“For a child that has sensory hypersensitivity, every touch is painful. A hug is perceived as a painful gesture.”

So says Yael Ohri, a preschool teacher who specializes in identifying and alerting parents to potential issues their children may have with sensory sensitivity.

Sensory sensitivity is an important concern for some children and their parents. Low sensory thresholds characterize sensory hypersensitivity, in which any touch or experience can overwhelm the child, while sensory hyposensitivity occurs when a child is “under-sensitive” to stimuli.

Ohri was trained by clinical-developmental psychologist Rami Katz at Tel Aviv University, who trains professionals who work with children, in the Neuro-Developmental & Functional Approach (NDFA). Developed by Katz, NDFA aims to address early developmental issues by targeting the underlying source of the problem, rather than the external manifestations like the behavioural and learning difficulties resulting from sensory sensitivity.

Sensory hypersensitivity comes in various forms as it may be experienced through any of the five senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, or taste. Ohri states that “a child’s skin may be so sensitive that she might complain that the tag in the back of the shirt, or the stitching in the socks is bothersome. Every little thing is experienced so intensely in a way that a child with normal sensitivity would not feel at all.”

Also of concern, over- or under- sensitivity in children can negatively affect the formation of attachment between parent and child.

As Ohri explains, “imagine a new mother who gives her baby a bath, and throughout the duration of the bath, the baby does not stop screaming, it can be very frustrating. The mom may blame herself and say, ‘I’m such a terrible mother, I can’t even bathe my baby,’ or worse, she may get angry with her baby for acting up and proclaim, ‘my baby hates me,’ causing an attachment issue right off the bat.”

To help young children struggling with average intensity stimuli, occupational therapists may stimulate the child’s skin with different brushes that allow the body to moderate the sensory input.

This, as well as other techniques, is designed to help sensory sensitivity. Still, Ohri believes that a critical element of treatment is simple awareness.

“It is essential that parents understand their child’s hyper- or hypo- sensitivity, and that it’s not something that the child is doing to them on purpose.” By raising early awareness, the issue is addressed when it is still relatively easy to treat. Ohri views it as much worse when the issue is not targeted early, leading to fights and stress in the family, as well as parents labelling the child as having a personality problem.

A sensory hyper-sensitive child may be labelled as irritable or whiny. Similarly, a hypo-sensitive child, who tends to be rougher, does so “not because he’s doing it on purpose, but instead, because he needs to hold and feel you and in order to do that, he does so more strongly. This kind of child is often labelled as violent.”

The problem is that this type of labelling can result in a self-fulfilling prophecy where the child ends up thinking of himself as difficult or rude, identity characteristics that become difficult to break free of later on.

Ohri argues that awareness helps. “Once parents become aware that the child has a sensory sensitivity, and begin asking themselves the right questions about the child’s day-to-day behaviours, they learn to alter their interaction with their child in order to avoid conflicts.”

Does simply being aware solve the problem altogether? No, but it’s a start.

“It doesn’t necessarily mean that the child stops being sensitive, but it helps moderate the difficulties and makes the child’s environment more understanding. This applies to both the child and the family. As both sides become more aware, living with sensory sensitivity becomes more tolerable. Mothers are amazing, if they are made aware, they find the solution.”

But what about parents who struggle with their own mental health? Parents dealing with personal trauma may find it harder to perceive signals coming from their child and may interpret them inaccurately.

According to developmental psychologist, Sarah Landy, at the Hincks-Dellcrest Centre in Toronto, parents who don’t have their personal needs met due to past trauma, find it difficult to emotionally connect with their children and respond sensitively to their needs. “When parents are unavailable due to trauma,” says Ohri, “awareness alone won’t do the trick, since the parents might not be able to get there on their own.”

So, parents who work toward resolving their own struggles with mental health will likely become better attuned to their children’s cues and respond to them more sensitively.

Sensory hyper- and hypo-sensitivity can be resolved relatively easily when targeted early, but can become a more complex issue when ignored or treated incorrectly, or when parents are not emotionally available to notice the problem.

Through the difficulties, Ohri emphasizes, “awareness is key.”

– Noam Bin-Noon, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Underage Models Need Federal Protection and Regulation

Underage Models Need Federal Protection and Regulation

00Environment, Ethics and Morality, Featured news, Gender, Law and Crime, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Stress, Work October, 15

Source: Anna Fischer/Flickr

When Jennifer Sky launched her career at age fourteen, she imagined a glamorous lifestyle, fame, and designer clothes.  Flash forward to seventeen:  Her experiences turned out to be very different.

For Jennifer and many other young models, the fashion world includes foreign locations and a cascade of highly sexualized situations with little supervision, grueling twelve-hour days with few breaks, and high-stress photo-shoots.

In a recent interview with the Trauma & Mental Health Report, Jennifer shared her experiences as a young model abroad, and discussed the repercussions she’s now facing.

Jennifer: In Japan I was molested several times on the subway.  In France, I stood in hypothermic-temperature waters every day for a week.  In Mexico, I was given drugs and coerced into going topless at age sixteen.  The human trafficking elements of fashion were all around me.  

It was during this time that Jennifer began experiencing symptoms of what was later diagnosed as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In her latest book, Queen of the Tokyo Ballroom, and herYouTube video that went viral earlier this year, Jennifer describes how her normally gregarious personality started to change.  She became withdrawn, easily startled, and feared new places.  Eventually, she felt so timid she barely spoke.

Although the symptoms began in the 1990s, Jennifer did not seek treatment until 2010 when she moved back to New York City.

Jennifer: I moved back to finish college and the symptoms returned with such a force that I could no longer ignore them.

Jennifer experienced panic attacks during stressful events, which were sometimes followed by dissociative episodes where she would lose, in her words, “whole swaths of time.” These overwhelming symptoms led her to visit her university’s clinic where she was formally diagnosed.

Almost twenty years since modeling, through anti-anxiety medication and psychotherapy, Jennifer is managing her symptoms and is now a graduate student and activist.

Jennifer: I’m working toward transforming a problematic and corrupt industry into a positive one. Fashion can be fun.  It can be a rewarding opportunity.  It can also be abusive, opportunistic, corrupt, and traumatizing.

So what is currently being done to make youth modeling a safer profession?

In the Fall of 2013, New York State passed the Child Model Law, which ensures protection for individuals under eighteen, who work in the fashion industry.  The law requires tutors and chaperones, and that 15% of the model’s earnings be held in financial trust.  It also requires that all working children and adolescents be in possession of a permit while on set, and limits the amount of time they are allowed to be there.

The changes to labour laws in New York State saw instant successat the 2014 New York Fashion week, where only three underage models obtained permits, and were able to work the fashion shows.  Previously, as many as 60% of the models were under eighteen.

As promising as these changes are, the new labour laws are not federal – they only protect models that are working in the state of New York. In general, models still face a working world devoid of adequate labour regulation or protection.

Jennifer still questions whether the modeling industry is the right environment for children. But, by raising awareness and promoting models’ rights, Jennifer hopes to convince the U.S. federal government to change laws on underage modeling.

Jennifer: When we are talking about the protection of children, there really should be no debate.

– Magdelena Belanger, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright: Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today