Category: ADHD

image1-470x260_0.jpeg

Integrated Classrooms Fail Teachers and Students

00ADHD, Cognition, Confidence, Education, Featured news, Self-Esteem September, 19

Source: Ryan McGuire at Gratisography, some rights reserved

Sharon (name changed), an elementary school teacher in London, England, taught a challenging class last year. Out of a large group of 30 students, three were diagnosed with autism, one with dyspraxia, three with ADHD, and two with ODD. Despite her 25 years of experience, she felt stressed balancing the needs of these students with the needs of the class as a whole, and almost resigned from her position. 

Many teachers can identify. Students with special needs are often placed with teachers who have received no training or resources to help. This occurs in schools that have welcomed students with disabilities, but are not yet fully inclusive. Schools like this are said to be integrated. 

According to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in an integrated school, students with special needs are placed in existing educational systems. In contrast, inclusion involves making changes to the entire system to allow all students to have access to a learning environment that best suits their needs. These accommodations can range from specially formatted worksheets to in-class tutors to special technologies. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities states:

“Placing students with disabilities in mainstream classes without appropriate structural changes to, for example, organization, curriculum and teaching and learning strategies does not constitute inclusion.”

Many schools fail to provide teachers with appropriate resources. And teachers’ training programs do not sufficiently prepare teachers for working with students with special needs. The lack of support places significant stress on teachers who struggle with the dual challenges of educating a large class and catering to each student’s individual needs.  In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Josee (name changed), an elementary school teacher in Ontario, said:

“It’s stressful. It’s a lot, especially because I have big classes… and they are two different grades…There are times when I just feel very overwhelmed.”

And it’s not just teachers who are stressed, students are affected as well. Tammy (name changed), who teaches elementary school in Berkley, California, said in an interview that she has observed students suffering self-esteem issues due to their needs not being met in the classroom. In her words:

“It’s heartbreaking to see a child that just has no confidence in their own abilities because they aren’t able to do the work they see their peers doing. It’s a vicious cycle too, they can’t do the work so they check out, and then they fall even farther behind. I try my best to celebrate and make visible some kind of success that child has had, whether it’s social or physical or artistic or whatever, just to give them a more positive self-image, but it’s a really hard thing to spend every day struggling to understand what’s happening around you.”

According to the CDC, in the United States, 15% of children ages 3 to 17 have a neurodevelopmental disability; this includes all developmental disorders, learning and intellectual disabilities, and motor and language disorders. The number of children in the same age group with mental, emotional, or behavioural disorders is estimated at 13% to 20%. These students often require individualized learning and attention within the classroom.  

However, without adequate training or resources, teachers find it difficult to give students the help they need. Rebecca (name changed), an Ontario elementary school teacher  explained in an interview:

No teacher knows exactly what to do with each kid and each diagnosis. Yes, there’s accommodations for academics, but it’s not always the academics that needs help, it’s the behaviour, it’s the self-esteem, it’s their growth, their confidence.

To better help their students, teachers require additional training on how to work with students with various disabilities, as well as assistants or co-teachers in the classroom to share the load. Other resources include technologies to better help students and the ability to consult with specialists. With these resources, schools can take the final steps towards become fully inclusive.

And, in schools that have successfully adopted a philosophy of inclusion, the benefits are significant. In a study conducted by Thomas Hehir, Professor of practice in learning differences at Harvard University:

“There is clear and consistent evidence that inclusive educational settings can confer substantial short- and long-term benefits for students with and without disabilities.”

Schools should keep working toward their goals of inclusion to create classrooms where both students and teachers are given the tools they need to succeed. 

-Roselyn Gishen, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

-Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

feature-image-copy-470x260.jpg

Misdiagnosis All Too Common for Women with Autism

00ADHD, Autism, Cognition, Featured news, Gender, Health, Wisdom May, 19

Source: Ryan McGuire at Gratisography, Creative Commons

After twenty-eight years of being “dragged through the system,” Emily Swiatek was finally diagnosed with Asperger’s, a branch of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For Emily, receiving the diagnosis felt like “coming home to a version of yourself that you have been denied of.”

Research shows that Autism Spectrum Disorder is more prevalent in males than females by a ratio of three to one. But there is increasing evidence that this gender difference may be slimmer than we think, and that autism symptoms in women and girls are frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. 

In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Emily explains her frustration with being shuffled from one specialist to another for years, without receiving an adequate explanation for her symptoms: 

“I’ve been through quite a long journey, being given about 10 mental health diagnoses along the way. It was getting to that point where it felt like I was caught in the middle of a guessing game. I kept coming up against the same response of ‘we don’t really understand let’s keep throwing the labels and see what sticks’.” 

The National Autistic Society survey conducted in the United Kingdom found that compared to males, women and girls are more likely to be misdiagnosed, with 42% of females diagnosed with a mental disorder other than autism when being assessed, as opposed to 30% of males. 

Emily’s experience is not unique. Hannah Belcher, who was diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome at 23, shares her experience:

“Throughout my life, I’ve been diagnosed with Anxiety, Depression, Bipolar, traits of Borderline Personality Disorder, and ADHD. Some correct and comorbid, some incorrect and misdiagnosed.”

There is no clear explanation as to why women with autism are often misdiagnosed. Child psychiatrist Meng-Chuan Lai, a clinician-scientist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health says that while there is a range of different reasons why women receive a diagnosis of ASD later in life, one possibility is that autism characteristics aren’t so evident in females: 

“Girls and women may be more able to master ‘camouflaging’, so ‘typical’ autistic characteristics could be masked when they learn social skills.” 

Lai describes this as the ability to learn neurotypical social behaviours such as eye contact, gestures, holding conversations, and the utilization of social scripts.  These neurotypical behaviours represent those who are not on the autism spectrum in contrast to the neurodiverse behaviours which refer to differently wired brains and cognitive styles attributed to those on the autism spectrum. 

In the foreword for Safety Skills for Asperger Women by Liane Holliday Willey, Tony Atwood describes this “camouflaging” phenomenon, reporting that young girls mask the symptoms of autism by socializing and interacting with their peers, causing a delay in diagnosis.  

Both Hannah and Emily attribute mimicking socialization patterns as an important factor. Emily explains: 

“I’m not a part of that traditional profile of autism… It never even occurred to anyone who was assessing me that somebody who looks like me, somebody who presents like me, could be autistic because I’m smiley, I’m eloquent, I can probably make eye contact if I have to, even though I don’t like it. I’m a very strong mimicker and that masking and mimicking profile is true for me.  I think I very much fit that ‘well behaved little girl’ image—very intelligent, liked reading, very quiet, maybe they’d say I was shy.”  

Lai notes that another possible reason for the misdiagnosis is that women and girls tend to have restricted and repetitive behaviours that are less likely to be recognized:

“The issue is that some of these narrow interests of autism in males, if you only look at the content, are more traditionally male-typical such as trains, dinosaurs, trucks, and they are most easily recognized by clinicians because of our own stereotypes of autism. For girls, their restricted and repetitive behaviours might not be captured by standardized instruments as they are deemed as less noticeable.”

Recent research has touched on the idea of bias in the way autism is diagnosed. One study showed that girls are more likely to be diagnosed if they had an additional intellectual disability or behavioural issues. However, without these, many women are receiving incorrect diagnoses, or none at all. Hannah agrees:

“Sometimes you might feel like you don’t fit in anywhere, everything everyone thinks about autism is male biased. However, as slow and painful as the journey is, there is always a light at the end of the tunnel. It takes us a little bit longer to get to it, but it is worth the journey.

In a study looking at sex differences between children with autism, researchers recommend new strategies for improving autism recognition in females. In fact, Australia is the first country to form new national guidelines to help increase early diagnosis of women with autism.  Considerations of social camouflaging, anxiety, sensory overload, and depression are being included in these new guidelines.  

If these guidelines are implemented, it will be possible to decrease the number of misdiagnoses in women and girls who have autism, leading to less frustration for these women and more time to learn how to manage their diagnosis. Emily says that since she received her diagnosis, her life has changed for the better:

“It was instant relief the minute I got my diagnosis. It just made sense. It was right. It was instantaneous the difference it made. My general well-being just went up and up and up, and is still on an upward trajectory.”    

-Lucia Chiara Limanni, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

-Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

feature-image-copy-470x260-2.jpg

Misdiagnosis Is All Too Common for Women with Autism

00ADHD, Autism, Cognition, Featured news, Gender, Wisdom May, 19

Source: Ryan McGuire at Gratisography, Creative Commons

After twenty-eight years of being “dragged through the system,” Emily Swiatek was finally diagnosed with Asperger’s, a branch of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). For Emily, receiving the diagnosis felt like “coming home to a version of yourself that you have been denied.”

Research shows that Autism Spectrum Disorder is more prevalent in males than females by a ratio of three to one. But there is increasing evidence that this gender difference may be slimmer than we think, and that autism symptoms in women and girls are frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. 

In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Emily explains her frustration with being shuffled from one specialist to another for years, without receiving an adequate explanation for her symptoms: 

“I’ve been through quite a long journey, being given about 10 mental health diagnoses along the way. It was getting to that point where it felt like I was caught in the middle of a guessing game. I kept coming up against the same response of, ‘We don’t really understand—let’s keep throwing labels and see what sticks.’” 

A survey conducted in the United Kingdom by The National Autistic Society found that compared to males, women and girls are more likely to be misdiagnosed, with 42 percent of females diagnosed with a mental disorder other than autism when being assessed, as opposed to 30 percent of males. 

Emily’s experience is not unique. Hannah Belcher, who was diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome at 23, shares her experience: “Throughout my life, I’ve been diagnosed with Anxiety, Depression, Bipolar, traits of Borderline Personality Disorder, and ADHD. Some correct and comorbid, some incorrect and misdiagnosed.”

There is no clear explanation as to why women with autism are often misdiagnosed. Child psychiatrist Meng-Chuan Lai, a clinician-scientist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, says that while there is a range of different reasons why women receive a diagnosis of ASD later in life, one possibility is that autism characteristics aren’t so evident in females: “Girls and women may be more able to master ‘camouflaging,’ so ‘typical’ autistic characteristics could be masked when they learn social skills.” 

Lai describes this as the ability to learn neurotypical social behaviors such as eye contact, gestures, holding conversations, and the utilization of social scripts. These neurotypical behaviors represent those who are not on the autism spectrum, in contrast to the neurodiverse behaviors which refer to differently wired brains and cognitive styles attributed to those on the autism spectrum. 

In the foreword for Safety Skills for Asperger Women by Liane Holliday Willey, Tony Atwood describes this “camouflaging” phenomenon, reporting that young girls mask the symptoms of autism by socializing and interacting with their peers, causing a delay in diagnosis.  

Both Hannah and Emily attribute mimicking socialization patterns as an important factor. Emily explains: 

“I’m not a part of that traditional profile of autism… It never even occurred to anyone who was assessing me that somebody who looks like me, somebody who presents like me, could be autistic because I’m smiley, I’m eloquent, I can probably make eye contact if I have to, even though I don’t like it. I’m a very strong mimicker and that masking and mimicking profile is true for me. I think I very much fit that ‘well behaved little girl’ image—very intelligent, liked reading, very quiet, maybe they’d say I was shy.”  

Lai notes that another possible reason for the misdiagnosis is that women and girls tend to have restricted and repetitive behaviors that are less likely to be recognized:

“The issue is that some of these narrow interests of autism in males, if you only look at the content, are more traditionally male-typical such as trains, dinosaurs, trucks, and they are most easily recognized by clinicians because of our own stereotypes of autism. For girls, their restricted and repetitive behaviours might not be captured by standardized instruments as they are deemed as less noticeable.”

Recent research has touched on the idea of bias in the way autism is diagnosed. One study showed that girls are more likely to be diagnosed if they had additional intellectual disabilities or behavioral issues. However, without these, many women are receiving incorrect diagnoses or none at all. Hannah agrees: “Sometimes you might feel like you don’t fit in anywhere, everything everyone thinks about autism is male-biased. However, as slow and painful as the journey is, there is always a light at the end of the tunnel. It takes us a little bit longer to get to it, but it is worth the journey.”

In a study looking at sex differences between children with autism, researchers recommend new strategies for improving autism recognition in females. In fact, Australia is the first country to form new national guidelines to help increase early diagnosis of women with autism. Considerations of social camouflaging, anxiety, sensory overload, and depression are being included in these new guidelines.  

If these guidelines are implemented, it will be possible to decrease the number of misdiagnoses in women and girls who have autism, leading to less frustration for these women and more time to learn how to manage their diagnosis. Emily says that since she received her diagnosis, her life has changed for the better: “It was instant relief the minute I got my diagnosis. It just made sense. It was right. It was instantaneous the difference it made. My general well-being just went up and up and up, and is still on an upward trajectory.”    

-Lucia Chiara Limanni, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

-Copyright Robert T. Muller

LinkedIn Image Credit: Victoria Labadie/Shutterstock

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Distinct ADHD Symptoms in Girls Result in Under-Diagnosis

Distinct ADHD Symptoms in Girls Result in Under-Diagnosis

00ADHD, Adolescence, Education, Featured news, Gender, Parenting June, 15

Source: Ojo de Cineasta/Flickr

When my daughter was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the first grade, I was devastated. I didn’t see a hyperactive, impulsive child or one with behavioural issues. I apparently missed the symptoms, now making me wonder how many other parents also don’t know what ADHD looks like in girls.

It’s common to hear stories of young boys being overmedicated and over-diagnosed with ADHD. What we don’t hear is that for every boy diagnosed, there is a girl whose symptoms are being missed.

Patricia Quinn, developmental pediatrician and director of the National Center for Gender Issues and ADHD, says that girls with the disorder often exhibit symptoms in less physical and disruptive ways compared to boys. Girls are raised to internalize their emotions in North American culture, this is likely why they are more commonly diagnosed as having the ADHD inattentive subtype. Quinn notes that even girls with the ADHD hyperactive subtype do not show the same physical energy as boys do with the same subtype, but instead, exhibit symptoms like incessant talking, chewing on hair or clothes, being emotionally reactive or displaying hypersensitivity.

Similar to my experience, Katie, a mother of two girls living in Arkansas, found her daughter Katelyn’s diagnosis surprising. After Katelyn’s second grade teacher noticed her difficulty focusing and staying on task, a psychologist diagnosed Katelyn with the inattentive subtype of ADHD and mild anxiety.

“I thought Katelyn was just a little over-sensitive. She never acted too fidgety or anything. The most she did was talk incessantly, but that wasn’t a big deal,” says Katie.

Katie’s younger daughter, Violet, demonstrated intense and sometimes aggressive behavior. She was diagnosed at age six with combined type ADHD with aggression. The impulsive behavior showed up in Violet as being “mean” and sometimes acting like a bully.

Michelle, a single parent from Toronto, is currently in the process of having her eight-year-old daughter Lisa assessed. Having already been through the assessment process with Lisa’s older brother Nick, Michelle explains, “With Nick we were doing damage control whereas with Lisa, her behavior was more covert and not as extreme.”

Lisa, Katelyn, and Violet are fortunate to have been diagnosed early.

Most girls are not diagnosed until puberty, and even then, their symptoms can be mistaken for other disorders like depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Quinn highlights that in a 2002 nationwide survey by Harris International, 14% of adolescent girls who had ADHD were [improperly] treated with antidepressants before their ADHD treatment, compared to only 5% of males with ADHD.

Even once a diagnosis is made, parents can go through various stages of denial, grief, and blame. Child psychologists, Alexandra Harborne and Miranda Wolpert at CAMHS in England, and neuropsychologist, Linda Clare, at the University of Wales Bangor say that it is common for parents to blame themselves for their children’s bad behaviour. In addition to dealing with self-blame, parents may unintentionally delay an assessment for their child.

In Katie’s situation, she says Katelyn’s grandfather did not believe that there was anything wrong with her, causing Katie to question her decision to have her daughter assessed as well as her choice of a medication based treatment plan. So too, Violet’s daycare initially attributed her misbehaviour to poor parenting, rather than an inability to regulate her emotions and behavior.

Receiving a diagnosis can bring relief to parents as it provides an explanation for the behaviors they’ve experienced. But, it can also cause grief as parents deal with the loss of a “normal” child and anxiety over what the future holds for the family.

A key part of the assessment process should include some support for the parents. But this is sometimes hard for parents to find. CHADD, Children and Adults with ADHD is a network throughout the U.S. and Canada that provides support groups and parenting classes. ADDitude magazine is another helpful resource. These networks allow parents to share the process of understanding the diagnosis and learning new parenting skills.

Michelle says that after researching ADHD she has come to see her children as simply being wired differently. She refers to the reactions and behaviours of ADHD as her child’s “guidance system”. She believes triggers occur when the environment or situation is a poor fit for the child, but that they can find what they need, and learn what to avoid.

Katie thinks that ADHD is not a problem per se, but part of who her children are. She considers her girls’ different ways of thinking as leading to creativity and innovation, underscoring the idea that a diagnosis of ADHD is not necessarily a negative label. As Michelle and Katie demonstrate, just being able to accept and understand the differences created by ADHD can be empowering. It’s neither a curse, nor a gift, just a different way of thinking.

Quinn notes that ADHD is highly treatable regardless of whether it is present in girls or boys.

What we need now is a better understanding of gender differences so we don’t miss early signs, and can better treat ADHD in girls.

– Heather Carter-Simmons, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

163805-168551

Womb Wounds: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

00ADHD, Alcohol, Child Development, Education, Empathy, Featured news, Guilt, Health, Neuroscience, Parenting, Pregnancy, Psychiatry, Stress, Trauma November, 14

“Fifteen years ago there were very few people who knew about FASD. If you were to go to court and say, ‘My son or daughter has FASD,’ a judge wouldn’t even know if it was a real thing.” – Jonathan Rudin, Justice Committee Co-Chair at the FASD Ontario Network of Expertise

Recently referred to as an “invisible condition” by the popular Canadian newspaper, The Globe And Mail, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) often goes undiagnosed.

A supervisor at the Toronto Children’s Aid Society described to the Trauma & Mental Health Report the stream of FASD cases that have recently found their way into youth care and justice systems.

“You often don’t know a child has FASD because the mother is not around to confirm alcohol exposure during pregnancy. With one case, we suspected it, and did some digging. The grandparents of the child confirmed that the mother did consume alcohol during pregnancy. It was the grandparent’s report that changed everything. Nobody would have known.”

Characterized by growth deficiencies and central nervous system damage, FASD is an incurable condition. According to Ernest Abel, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Wayne State University and Ronald Sokol, Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Colorado, FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation.

The Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry explains that mothers often feel intense guilt and are typically blamed for damage to the child. For this reason, they are not always forthright about drinking habits. Stigma also plays a powerful role in motivating mothers to withhold information. And often, mothers consumed alcohol before they knew they were pregnant and are therefore unable to recall precise quantities and timing of drinks.

Adelaide Muswagon, a single mom, was featured in the Winnipeg Free Press in an article on FASD. “It took a lot of courage for me to get help. I know behind my back I was called an alcoholic and druggie. I can’t change what I have done; I already harmed my child. But I want expecting mothers to know my story, realize the consequences, and not make the same mistakes I did.”

The diagnosis of FASD is only given at birth for the most extreme cases. More often than not, symptoms are mild and fall within the normal range of development. For a firm diagnosis, confirmation of alcohol use during pregnancy is required. Because FASD can look like other medical, psychosocial and psychiatric conditions, children can be mistakenly labelled with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or a behavioural disorder.

Fortunately, the behavioural symptoms associated with FASD are becoming better known. As we learn more about the hardships associated with the condition, mothers may question their decision to be vague or dishonest about drinking.

Liz Kulp, award winning author, advocate, and person living with FASD speaks candidly about her experiences in her book, The Best I Can Be: Living with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Effects.

“Finding out [why life was so hard for me] didn’t change how hard life is, but it did make me believe I was not a bad person. When I ask a question, it is because I don’t understand, not because I have not been listening, sometimes there is a blank space and I can’t get across it. I may look really normal and I work really hard to maintain. That is really stressful and sometimes I get frustrated. Sometimes the stress just builds up, especially when different people put different expectations on me all at the same time.”

For students, FASD manifests with attention problems and difficulties understanding instructions and rules. Common sense can be lacking, along with a tendency to take things literally. Learning issues lead to high drop-out rates. Youth with FASD often become involved in criminal justice systems, and many such individuals are overrepresented in prison populations. Jonathan Rudin, an Ontario lawyer and chair of the FASD Justice Committee says people with FASD are “usually not the mastermind behind the crime” but they are “easily convinced to take the rap.”

Catching the condition early in life and understanding its effects can help with education, parenting strategies, and legal provisions.

Moving through life without knowing why things are harder for you and why everyone else seems to be able to function with ease can be devastating. Sadly, people with undiagnosed FASD often grow up using alcohol to cope, possibly giving birth to a child with FASD.

Alleviating stigma around FASD by providing mothers with a non-judgemental space to speak about their drinking may help with diagnosis and treatment.

– Contributing Writer: Anjani Kapoor, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

159025-163284

Dr. Mom and Dad

00ADHD, Anxiety, Attention, Child Development, Depression, Environment, Featured news, Health, Intelligence, Leadership, Motivation, Parenting, Psychiatry, Psychopharmacology, Self-Control, Sleep September, 14

We live in a world of self-diagnosis. With access to online medical databases like WebMD and kidshealth.org, it is easy to type symptoms into Google, find a diagnosis and present findings to the family physician.

Self-diagnosis may seem harmless, but it can become problematic when we diagnose ourselves or our children with more complicated conditions, behavioral disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

The over-diagnosis of ADHD and the over-prescription of medications like Ritalin, Adderall, and Vyvanse (to name a few) have been longstanding problems in the health care community. Clinical psychologists Silvia Schneider, Jurgen Margraf, and Katrin Bruchmuller, on faculty at the University of Bochum and the University of Basel found that mental health workers such as psychiatrists tend to diagnose based on “a rule of thumb.” That is, children and adolescents -often males- are diagnosed with ADHD based on criteria such as “motoric restlessness, lack of concentration and impulsiveness,” rather than adhering to more comprehensive diagnostic criteria.

Parentsmotivation to get help for their child’s problems along with free access to online information may play a role in the over-diagnosis of ADHD.

A study by Anne Walsh, a professor of Nursing at Queensland University of Technology found that close to 43% of parents diagnosed and 33% treated their children’s health using online information. Of concern, 18% of parents actually altered their child’s professional health management to correspond with online information. Considering the questionable quality of some online health information, these numbers are worrisome.

Furthermore, as primary caregivers can sometimes be persuaded, it is possible that parental conviction of the child’s diagnosis may play a role in physician decisions to treat. With basic diagnostic criteria for ADHD readily available online, some parents may be quick to self-diagnose their “restless and impulsive child.”

“It sometimes happens that parents come to me convinced that their child has ADHD [based on their own research] and in many circumstances they are correct,” says Dan Flanders, a pediatrician practicing in Toronto, Canada.

 According to Flanders, there are certain traits that make a child more likely to be misdiagnosed with ADHD. “Children who have learning disabilities, hearing impairment, or visual impairment may be mistaken as having ADHD because it is harder for them to focus if they can’t see the blackboard, hear their teacher or if they simply cannot read their homework.”

Flanders adds that gifted children, children with anxiety or depression, and children with sleep disorders are commonly misdiagnosed with attention disorders. “Gifted children learn the class objectives after the first 10 minutes of a class whereas their classmates need the whole hour. For the remaining 50 minutes of class these children get bored, fidgety, distracted, and disruptive. The treatment for these children is to enrich their learning environment so that they are kept engaged by the additional school materials.”

Children with anxiety and depression can be misdiagnosed with ADHD because there may be an interference with a child’s ability to learn, focus, eat, sleep, and interact with others. For children with sleep disorders, “one of the most common presentations of sleep disorders is hyperactivity and an inability to focus during the day. Fix the sleep problem and the ADHD symptoms go away.”

It is, however, important to note that these disorders are not mutually exclusive of each other. “A child can have a learning disability, anxiety, and independent ADHD all at the same time.” 

While it is often beneficial for parents to consult online databases for background information, Flanders warns against relying solely on information found online because the information may not be up-to-date and cannot replace a thorough psychological assessment.

Why, then, do parents resort to this quick fix of information?

Walsh reported that parents use online health information for a range of reasons including feeling rushed and receiving limited general lifestyle guidance from their doctors.

Flanders points out that the doctor’s approach should always be to review the data honestly and objectively with parents and then openly present the treatment options available to them.

“The most important part of ADHD treatment is making sure of the diagnosis. There are so many children who are started on medication inappropriately. Throwing medication at the problem is not the answer unless the diagnosis is well established and the differential diagnoses have been exhausted.”

– Contributing Writer: Jana Vigour, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today