Category: Coaching

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Dangerous Eating Has Become a Problem in High-Level Sports

00Anorexia Nervosa, Body Image, Coaching, Diet, Eating Disorders, Featured news, Health, Sport and Competition July, 18

Source: Image Credits Feature: Thomas Wolter at pixabay, Creative Commons

As profiled by the media during the Summer 2016 Olympics and Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, doping is a problem that continues to plague sporting events worldwide. For the past half-century, international sports federations, including the International Olympics Committee (IOC), have tried to stop the infiltration of illegal substances into sports.

Despite harsh punishments, some coaches and athletes persist in employing banned drugs, such as stimulants and hormones, to improve performance. Through periodic drug testing, these federations monitor the substances that athletes consume. Educational programs and medical treatment also help athletes address drug use and the pressures of high-performance sports.

But is anyone paying attention to what athletes are not consuming?

Disordered eating behaviours are another tactic used to heighten performance. Although highly controlled eating practices can cause serious health problems, dangerous eating among athletes is not heavily monitored by sports organizations.

Disordered eating is defined as a spectrum of harmful and often ineffective eating behaviours used to lose weight or attain a lean appearance. When defining disordered eating, the American College of Sports Medicine uses a behavioural continuum that starts with healthy dieting among athletes, proceeding to more extensive weight or dietary restrictions, to passive or active dehydration (e.g., saunas), and end at the onset of diagnosable eating disorders.

In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Roy Cowling, Technical Director and Club Head Coach at North Toronto Soccer Club and volunteer for the Special Olympics Ireland and Special Olympics Great Britain, says that “involvement in organized and professional sports can offer a lot of benefits—improved self-esteem and body image, and encouragement to remain active throughout one’s life.”

But from his day-to-day interactions with clients who are training for professional sports, he thinks that athletic competition can cause severe psychological stress.

“The sports culture, with its emphasis on optimal or ideal body size or shape for best performance, is at many times an influencing factor in developing odd or abnormal eating patterns. Even extreme dieting or not eating at all.”

When the pressures of athletic competition are layered on top of an existing cultural emphasis on thinness, the risks increase for athletes to end up with disordered eating—a strong predictor that individuals may progress to an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder).

In a study of Division 1 NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) athletes, over one-third of female athletes reported pathological attitudes and symptoms toward eating, placing them at risk for anorexia nervosa. Although most athletes with eating disorders are female, males are not immune. Athletes competing in sports that tend to place an emphasis on diet, appearance, size, and weight requirements—such as wrestling, bodybuilding, running, and ‘anti-gravity’ sports (jumping sports where excess body weight is a disadvantage)—face more pressure to maintain a certain body weight.

Athletes are also at a higher risk than the general population of suffering harsh health consequences of eating disorders. According to Cowling:

“Athletes already exercise heavily, so their bodies and energy levels are depleted sooner and their health is heavily tested and challenged.”

Doping is deemed harmful to an athlete’s health by sports federations and is monitored. So why aren’t eating disorders carefully screened? This question is particularly crucial, given that pathological eating behaviours, specifically anorexia nervosa, have the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric illness.

Cowling, through his work at the Olympics, says that it often boils down to time, resources, and ultimately, athletes’ willingness to speak out.

“Testing for illegal substances is a fairly quick and standard process, whereas inquiring about someone’s eating behaviours or dieting leaves a lot of room for misinterpretation. There’s no guarantee that the athlete is even going to be honest, since that could risk them getting excluded from the team or competitions. Plus, a lot of resources and training would have to go into properly screening for abnormal eating behaviours—something that international, and even national or local sports organizations, can’t be bothered with.”

Unless sports federations pay closer attention to this issue, the onus is on coaches who work closest with athletes to help keep eating and dieting behaviour in check.

Despite the lack of screening and prevention on the part of international sports federations, the National Eating Disorders Association and the National Eating Disorders Collaboration have guidelines for coaches to enhance their awareness and ability to address and prevent problematic eating behaviours in athletes.

“-Veerpal Bambrah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.”

“–Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.” http://trauma.blog.yorku.ca/

“Copyright Robert T. Muller.” https://psychotherapytoronto.ca/

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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Dangerous Eating Habits Enhance Sports Performance

00Anorexia Nervosa, Body Image, Coaching, Diet, Eating Disorders, Featured news, Health, Sport and Competition July, 18

Source: Image Credits Feature: Thomas Wolter at pixabay, Creative Commons

As profiled by the media during the Summer 2016 Olympics and Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, doping is a problem that continues to plague sporting events worldwide. For the past half-century, international sports federations, including the International Olympics Committee (IOC), have tried to stop the infiltration of illegal substances into sports.

Despite harsh punishments, some coaches and athletes persist in employing banned drugs, such as stimulants and hormones, to improve performance. Through periodic drug testing, these federations monitor the substances that athletes consume. Educational programs and medical treatment also help athletes address drug use and the pressures of high-performance sports.

But is anyone paying attention to what athletes are not consuming?

Disordered eating behaviours are another tactic used to heighten performance. Although highly controlled eating practices can cause serious health problems, dangerous eating among athletes is not heavily monitored by sports organizations.

Disordered eating is defined as a spectrum of harmful and often ineffective eating behaviours used to lose weight or attain a lean appearance. When defining disordered eating, the American College of Sports Medicine uses a behavioural continuum that starts with healthy dieting among athletes, proceeding to more extensive weight or dietary restrictions, to passive or active dehydration (e.g., saunas), and end at the onset of diagnosable eating disorders.

n an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Roy Cowling, Technical Director and Club Head Coach at North Toronto Soccer Club and volunteer for the Special Olympics Ireland and Special Olympics Great Britain, says that “involvement in organized and professional sports can offer a lot of benefits—improved self-esteem and body image, and encouragement to remain active throughout one’s life.”

But from his day-to-day interactions with clients who are training for professional sports, he thinks that athletic competition can cause severe psychological stress.

“The sports culture, with its emphasis on optimal or ideal body size or shape for best performance, is at many times an influencing factor in developing odd or abnormal eating patterns. Even extreme dieting or not eating at all.”

When the pressures of athletic competition are layered on top of an existing cultural emphasis on thinness, the risks increase for athletes to end up with disordered eating—a strong predictor that individuals may progress to an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder).

In a study of Division 1 NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) athletes, over one-third of female athletes reported pathological attitudes and symptoms toward eating, placing them at risk for anorexia nervosa. Although most athletes with eating disorders are female, males are not immune. Athletes competing in sports that tend to place an emphasis on diet, appearance, size, and weight requirements—such as wrestling, bodybuilding, running, and ‘anti-gravity’ sports (jumping sports where excess body weight is a disadvantage)—face more pressure to maintain a certain body weight.

Athletes are also at a higher risk than the general population of suffering harsh health consequences of eating disorders. According to Cowling:

“Athletes already exercise heavily, so their bodies and energy levels are depleted sooner and their health is heavily tested and challenged.”

Doping is deemed harmful to an athlete’s health by sports federations and is monitored. So why aren’t eating disorders carefully screened? This question is particularly crucial, given that pathological eating behaviours, specifically anorexia nervosa, have the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric illness.

Cowling, through his work at the Olympics, says that it often boils down to time, resources, and ultimately, athletes’ willingness to speak out.

“Testing for illegal substances is a fairly quick and standard process, whereas inquiring about someone’s eating behaviours or dieting leaves a lot of room for misinterpretation. There’s no guarantee that the athlete is even going to be honest, since that could risk them getting excluded from the team or competitions. Plus, a lot of resources and training would have to go into properly screening for abnormal eating behaviours—something that international, and even national or local sports organizations, can’t be bothered with.”

Unless sports federations pay closer attention to this issue, the onus is on coaches who work closest with athletes to help keep eating and dieting behaviour in check.

Despite the lack of screening and prevention on the part of international sports federations, the National Eating Disorders Association and the National Eating Disorders Collaboration have guidelines for coaches to enhance their awareness and ability to address and prevent problematic eating behaviours in athletes.

“-Veerpal Bambrah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.”

“–Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.” http://trauma.blog.yorku.ca/

“Copyright Robert T. Muller.” https://psychotherapytoronto.ca/

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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When Discipline Worsens Performance in Competitive Sports

20Child Development, Coaching, Featured news, Parenting, Self-Control, Sport and Competition, Trauma May, 17

Source: Petr Magera on flickr, Creative Commons

On December 19, 2015, former National Hockey League (NHL) player Patrick O’Sullivan revealed shocking details of sports-related childhood abuse. In a blog article on The Players Tribune, he disclosed that his father began abusing him at 5 years old when he got his first pair of hockey skates.

At the age of 10, it worsened:

“It would start as soon as we got in the car, and sometimes right out in the parking lot.”

He reveals that his father would put out cigarettes on his skin, choke him, and throw objects at him. At times, he endured whippings with a jump rope or an electrical cord.

“As twisted and insane as it sounds, in his mind, the abuse was justified. It was all going to make me a better hockey player—and eventually get me to the NHL.”

The more goals Patrick scored, the more the abuse intensified.

Patrick’s father assumed that these harsh disciplinary practices would enhance his abilities and success, but experts say otherwise. The scars of childhood abuse have a lasting negative impact.

John O’Sullivan (no relation to Patrick), a former soccer player, coach, and founder of the Changing the Game Project, says this parenting behaviour burdens the child, hindering performance.

In an article on the Changing the Game Project website, John writes:

“If a child believes that a parent’s love is tied to the expectation of winning, and he does not win, he may believe that he is less loved or valued. This creates anxiety and inhibits performance.”

Childhood maltreatment leads to decreased mental and physical health, even decades after the abuse. Rutgers sociology professor Kristen Springer and colleagues reported that, in their population based survey, physical symptoms and illnesses, like hypertension and cardiac problems, were present in those who experienced childhood abuse years earlier. And childhood maltreatment is also associated with increased anxiety, anger, and depression—symptoms that can be heavily detrimental to an athlete’s performance.

Some studies also show that early childhood maltreatment, such as the abuse endured by Patrick, shape aspects of socio-emotional development in adolescence and adulthood. A study conducted by Pan Chen and colleagues at the University of Chicago supported the relationship between childhood abuse and aggressive behaviour in adulthood. The researchers note that early trauma may increase impulsive behaviour and lashing out in abuse survivors.

But some, like Patrick, seek help. He says in an interview with ESPN, “…I have put the money and time into my own health.”

He acknowledges that not everyone has the opportunity to find the help they need—especially as an athlete:

“Players don’t feel like they can say anything because it’s a huge red flag. You say you need to see a psychologist and you’ll get a call from your agent saying he spoke to the General Manager of the team and wants to know what your ‘problem’ is.”

In addition to how isolating the experience of abuse can be for professional athletes and adults, Patrick emphasizes how helpless and frightening it can be for a child. He describes his own feelings of disempowerment, at the age of ten: “I just tried to survive. Each morning, I’d wake up and think: Here we go again. Just get through it.”

It didn’t help that others turned a blind eye. Patrick says that parents and coaches would catch a glimpse of the abuse, but no one stepped in. Bystanders may feel hesitant to intervene, out of fear of being wrong. But he counters, “If you are wrong, that’s the absolute best case scenario.” He hopes his story will raise awareness about childhood abuse in young athletes.

As for parents, soccer coach John O’Sullivan says that empowerment may be key to promoting competitive success, instead of harsh discipline and criticism. “The best players play with freedom, they play without fear and they are not afraid of making errors, they can play up to their potential,” he says in an interview with Kids in The House.

He shares that “I love watching you play” are the best five words you can say to a child after a game. “Because when you tell your kids, after a game, that ‘I love watching you play’, what you do is you free them from the burden of being responsible for your happiness as a parent”.

–Khadija Bint Misbah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

–Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today