Category: Consumer Behavior

fernf-470x260.jpg

What Can Minimalism do for Mental Health?

00Consumer Behavior, Featured news, Gratitude, Happiness, Health, Loneliness, Mindfulness, Sensation-Seeking February, 19

Source: Torley at flickr, Creative Commons

Ryan Nicodemus was once a senior executive making a six-figure income in a corporate job. He found himself unsatisfied with his life and depressed. He explains:

“I had everything I ever wanted. I had everything I was supposed to have. Everyone around me said, ‘you’re successful.’ But really, I was miserable.”

He looked to his life-long friend Joshua Fields Millburn for advice. Millburn pointed him toward Minimalism, namely, placing less focus and meaning on material possessions, and simplifying life to concentrate on what makes a person happiest and most fulfilled.

Nicodemus re-evaluated his circumstances and decided to de-clutter and downsize, leaving his career to pursue a life of simplicity. Together, he and Millburn branded themselves “The Minimalists.” The two attribute improved mental health to this change.

These experiences are detailed in their film Minimalism: A Documentary About the Important Things where they also reveal their difficult upbringings. Both Nicodemus and Millburn witnessed addiction and substance abuse in their families. They faced the limitations that come with living in low-income households. Their challenging pasts initially led them to aspire to acquiring wealth and material objects.

Rick Hanson, a psychologist whose work lies in personal well-being, states in the film:

“I think we’re confused about what’s going to make us happy. Many people think the material possessions are really at the center of the bull’s eye and they expect that gratifying each desire as it arises will somehow summate into a satisfying life.”

He goes on to say that this is not the case, and that the media perpetuate this way of thinking.

In the film, philosopher and neuroscientist Sam Harris argues that it is natural to use other’s lives or what’s in the media as yardsticks to measure one’s own success. He adds that this approach can lead to immense dissatisfaction.

Research seems to back up Harris’ claim. Mario Pandelaere of Ghent University cites a relationship between materialism and depression. Further, Pandelaere has found that “materialists” are, on average, not the happiest people.

In fact, Rik Pieters of Tilburg University has established a link between materialism and an increase in loneliness over time, and also reports a correlation between loneliness and depression.

And, there is support that materialistic consumption doesn’t lead to satisfaction.

The Minimalists advocate tackling materialism and consumption to fight depression. They describe excess consumption as a hunger that never gets fulfilled, and as a hopeless search for contentment. They say that, when letting go of the need to consume, people can tune in to their feelings and address unhappiness. Nicodemus and Millburn note:

“No matter how much stuff we buy, it’s never enough.”The two maintain that, if people abandon what is superfluous and only keep the items that add value, they can lead more satisfying lives. By regularly asking “Does this add value to my life?”, people are left with possessions that either serve a purpose or bring joy. Nicodemus and Millburn claim that answering this question leaves more room to build meaningful relationships and facilitate personal growth.

Not everyone agrees. With increased attention on Minimalism and de-cluttering in the news, there is some backlash to the movement. Many people are asking “How accessible is Minimalism? Is it something only for the wealthy elite?”

Most cannot afford to uproot their lives or leave their jobs to engage in a Minimalist lifestyle. Also, the portrayals of Minimalism so often seen on social media—images of chic white walls and trendy delicate jewelry—are far from attainable. Some people even say that they like having lots of knick-knacks and “clutter”, opting to call themselves “Maximalists.”

In his discussion of materialism, Pandelaere says:

“Everybody is to some extent materialistic, and materialistic consumption may not necessarily be bad. It may largely depend on the motives for it. If people consume in an effort to impress others, results may be adverse.”

– Fernanda de la Mora, Contributing Writer

The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

-Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Feature Image

Anorexia Affects More Men Than Previously Thought

10Bulimia Nervosa, Consumer Behavior, Diet, Eating Disorders, Featured news, Gender, Health, Psychiatry March, 15

Source: Federico Morando//Flickr

Zachary Haines was 16 years old when a physical examination put his 5’7”, 230-pound body within the obese range.  Soon after, Zachary began working out and watching his diet, entering his junior year at high school 45 pounds lighter.

But what started as a healthy lifestyle soon spiralled into a struggle with anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by severely restricting food intake.  Like many other men and boys, Zachary’s extreme weight loss was not identified as an illness.  In fact, it was ignored until he was hospitalized for malnutrition.  Despite having many of the telltale signs of anorexia, Zachary’s condition went untreated.

Anorexia and bulimia are traditionally seen as “female problems.”  But, recent studies show that approximately one third of people with anorexia and about one half of those with bulimia are men.

One of the  influences thought to impact these men are the shifting ideals in the media that are putting pressure on men to become thinner.

While there may not be a direct causal relationship between media portrayals of the ‘ideal’ man and the development of eating disorders, these depictions contribute to a cultural context that glorifies their apparent normalcy.   They may also influence males’ fears of becoming overweight, as male models face pressure to slim down and appear androgynous.

The thin ideal male image is also making its way into fashion.

In 1967, an average mannequin’s dimensions were a 42-inch chest and a 33-inch waist.  Today’s average dimensions are a 35-inch chest and a 27-inch waist.  With the average American man’s waist size being 39.7 inches, these changes represent a remarkably unrealistic objective.

For Zachary, fitting into smaller sized clothing after weight loss was a source of pride.

But during treatment this once enjoyable activity became emotionally painful:  In Zachary’s words, “The most anxiety-inducing part for me is trying on clothes.  If I go up a size, I think I’m going to be 230 pounds again.”

The signs that something was wrong were all there.

Despite working out for three hours per day while only consuming 1,400 calories, Zachary was continuously trying to lose more weight.  By relying on inaccurate results from the Body Mass Index (BMI), doctors missed his emaciation.  He had never fallen into the anorexic range because the BMI does not take into account the proportion of muscle to fat, even though his emaciation would have been evident if he were seen shirtless.

The growing number of stories like Zach’s has led to significant changes to how anorexia nervosa is diagnosed.

In the DSM-V (the most recent version of American psychiatry’s diagnostic manual), this change involved eliminating Criterion D, or amenorrhea (the absence of menstruation) to make the diagnosis gender-neutral.

Zachary recovered because he had support from his family and friends, private insurance, and access to physicians and psychiatrists, who he worked with closely.

To help his recovery, he had to change his wish to pursue becoming an athletic trainer to that of going into advertising.

Those without resources can also identify some of the signs of an eating disorder:  extreme exercise behaviors, compulsive thoughts of losing weight, constantly feeling cold, and extreme food restriction.

These signs don’t discriminate between men and women, neither should we.

– Contributing Writer: Danielle Tremblay, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: Federico Morando//Flickr

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

158553-162710

Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality

00Caregiving, Consumer Behavior, Ethics and Morality, Fantasies, Featured news, Gender, Pornography, Sex, Sport and Competition, Trauma August, 14

Claiming that mainstream porn is in the business of “making hate,” sociology and women’s studies professor Gail Dines at Wheelock College, Boston, has been a voice in the anti-pornography movement for two decades. In her latest book, Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked our Sexuality, Dines challenges the idea that the porn industry is in the business of “making love.”

She opens the subject with this line: “The awkward truth, according to one study, is that 90 percent of 8 to 16-year-olds have viewed pornography online. That means there is an entire generation of young people who think sex ends with a money shot to the face.” She points to the violence, rape and trauma embedded in mainstream pornography as cleverly wrapped in a sexual cloak, rendering it invisible. Those who protest are deemed anti-sex instead of anti-violence.

Dines has been portrayed as an uptight, anti-sex, victim feminist. But before judging, we should understand her arguments.

Argument 1: Pornography is first and foremost a business

Informative and well researched, the first three chapters describe the emergence of the porn industry. Dines walks readers from post World War II America to the present, describing the evolution of mass porn distribution as a key driver of new technological innovations. The most recent of these innovations being streaming video on computers and cell phones, allowing users to buy porn in private without embarrassing trips to seedy shops.

A multi-billion dollar business, content has been shaped by the contours of sophisticated marketing, state of the art technology, and competition within the industry. Dines says that underestimating the power of this well-oiled machine is the biggest mistake consumers of porn often make.

Argument 2: Porn is more than just fantasy

The next few chapters are devoted to myth busting. Dines considers porn to take place in “a parallel universe where love and intimacy are replaced by violence and the incessant abuse of women.” The majority of scenes from 50 top rented pornographic movies contained physical and verbal abuse; in fact, 90 percent of scenes contained at least one aggressive act.

In her chapter “Leaky Images: How Porn Seeps into Men’s Lives,” Dines examines the argument that porn is just entertainment citing that it is naive to think that fantasy can somehow remain separate from consumers’ actual sex lives. She looks at issues like the real-world effects of porn by drawing comparisons to the plastic surgery industry. “Many women know that the image of the model in the ads is an airbrushed, technologically enhanced version of the real thing, but that doesn’t stop us from buying products in the hope that we can imitate an image of an unreal woman.”

When the content source–big business–is considered, it becomes clearer how porn is not fantasy in the traditional sense of the word. Rather than coming from imagination, longings and experiences, these “fantasies” are highly formulaic factory-line images.

Argument 3: Pornography breeds violence

In 2002, the case of Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition deemed the 1996 Child Porn Prevention Act unconstitutional because its definition of child pornography (any visual depiction that appears to be of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct) was too broad. Dines explains that the law was narrowed to cover only those images of an actual person under the age of 18 (rather than one that simply appears to be). Since then, Pseudo Child Pornography or PCP has exploded all over the internet.

In PCP, “childified” women are adorned with pigtails and shown playing with toys. They are penetrated by any number of men masquerading as fathers, teachers, employers, coaches, and just plain old anonymous child molesters. Dines gives examples of defloration sites and websites specializing in virginity-taking, where an intact hymen is displayed before penetration. This disturbing issue serves as the climax of Dines’ book.

Unfortunately, Dines may lose a number of readers by drawing a link between viewing PCP and pedophilia. Dines interviews sexual offenders in prison, questioning them about their child porn consumption prior to engaging in child abuse. Almost without fail, offenders admitted to the use of porn before committing their crimes. This kind of retrospective research cannot accurately show cause-effect and fails to consider a host of other potential factors influencing child abuse (e.g., prior history of sexual abuse from a caregiver). In this way, she overstates her case.

Still, Pornland provides a rich examination of the porn industry and what it means to grow up in a porn-saturated culture. Despite a bent toward sensationalism, the book will help female and male readers question their beliefs about sex and also question where those beliefs come from.

– Contributing Writer: Anjani Kapoor, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today