Category: Politics

stefano-feature-1-470x260.jpg

Solitary Confinement Is Torture

00Ethics and Morality, Featured news, Health, Politics, Psychopathy, Punishment, Suicide May, 18

Source: The Euskadi 11 at flickr, Creative Commons

Sixteen-year-old Kalief Browder spent three years in New York’s notorious Rikers Island prison, awaiting trial for robbery. Two of those years were spent in solitary confinement. Browder’s case was eventually dismissed and, after surviving four suicide attempts during incarceration, he was released. Suffering from depression and paranoia from his years in isolation, Browder died by suicide in June of 2015.

Former U.S. President Barack Obama referenced Browder’s story in an opinion piece he wrote for the Washington Post, explaining his decision to ban solitary confinement for juveniles in all federal prisons, and calling for greater restrictions on its use as a punitive measure. New York had already ended the use of isolation for prisoners 16 and 17 years old, but in October 2016, the age restriction was extended to age 21 and younger.

In 2015, Canada’s Prime Minister Justin Trudeau moved to ban the use of long-term solitary confinement by placing a 15 consecutive-day limit on its use—as of writing, this ban had not come into effect. His decision was motivated in part by the death of Ashley Smith, a young offender who had spent more than 1,000 days in isolation. At the age of 19, while being held in solitary, Smith died by hanging herself. A coroner’s inquest ruled her death a homicide, indicating that other people’s actions were factors in her death.

Reforms are moving in the right direction, but results of a 2011 United Nations (UN) report raise the question—should isolation be permitted under any circumstances? UN Special Rapporteur Juan E. Mendez said in this report:

“Solitary confinement, [as a punishment] cannot be justified for any reason, precisely because it imposes severe mental pain and suffering beyond any reasonable retribution for criminal behaviour and thus constitutes an act defined [as] … torture.”

Nevertheless, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures, many American states impose no restrictions on the use of solitary confinement, even for juveniles. In Canada, there is currently no limit on how much time a prisoner can spend in solitary confinement. And, if adopted, the limits proposed by Trudeau will only affect federal prisons.

According to an American National Survey by the Association of State Correctional Administrators at Yale, “between 80,000 and 100,000 people were in isolation in prisons as of the fall of 2014.” In Canada, The Globe and Mail reports, “1,800 Canadian inmates are held in segregation on any given day.”

According to Mendez, the adverse health effects of this type of imprisonment are numerous, and include ‘prison psychosis,’ which can lead to anxiety, depression, irritability, cognitive disorders, hallucinations, paranoia, and self-inflicted injuries. Mendez concluded that “solitary confinement for more than 15 days…constitutes cruel and inhuman, or degrading treatment, or even torture”—well below the time Browder and Smith spent in isolation.

The adverse effects of solitary confinement on mental health have a long history of documentation. David H. Cloud, head of the Vera Institute of Justice’s Reform for Healthy Communities Initiative, stated:

“Nearly every scientific inquiry into the effects of solitary confinement over the past 150 years has concluded that subjecting an individual to more than 10 days of involuntary segregation results in a distinct set of emotional, cognitive, social, and physical pathologies.”

These findings prompted Kenneth Appelbaum from the Center for Health Policy and Research at the University of Massachusetts Medical School to write an article calling for American psychiatry to join the fight against the use of solitary confinement.

Many prison administrators disagree. In an interview with the Boston Globe, the Massachusetts Commissioner of Correction defended the use of solitary, explaining:

“We have to be realistic when we’re running these prisons. Segregation is a necessary tool in a prison environment.”

An article by Corrections One, an online news outlet for the correctional field, explains that segregation keeps jails safer by removing violent and dangerous inmates from the prison population, in the same way that imprisonment removes dangerous people from society. Segregation, the article states, is primarily used on prisoners that pose a risk of harm to themselves or others.

Speaking with the Canadian Broadcasting Company (CBC), Lisa Kerr, law professor at Queen’s University in Southern Ontario, reported that:

“Prison administrators have long been convinced that they cannot manage their institutions without easy, limitless recourse to segregation.”

Watch-dog groups point out that other countries apply the use of solitary confinement more selectively and with greater oversight than is used in North American prisons. In the U.K., while solitary is still in practice, the number of prisoners subjected to this form of punishment is much lower. Even more progressive are correctional institutions in Norway, where prison reform has moved away from punitive approaches and has placed rehabilitation and reintegration as a key focus during incarceration.

Eliminating the use of solitary confinement for juveniles is a promising first step towards abolishing the practice entirely. While supporters of solitary may not feel there are effective alternative punishments, human rights advocates continue to fight for prison reform. Looking at solutions used in other countries, perhaps more effective and humane incarceration methods can be realized, and the current paradigm of punishment may shift.

–Stefano Costa, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

–Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report. 

Copyright Robert T. Muller. 

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

6038112201_c7758bd2f7_b-2.jpg

For Mentally Ill, Jail Diversion Program Gives Second Chance

30Featured news, Health, Law and Crime, Loneliness, Politics, Psychiatry, Psychopathy March, 18

Source: octopusdevon at flickr, Creative Commons

On February 8, 2015, Natasha McKenna—a 37-year-old who suffered from mental illness—died following an incident in which she was tasered four times by law enforcement.

After a week-long delay in transporting her to a county jail in Virginia, where she would be provided with mental-health resources, she became agitated. In an effort to regain control, officers used a stun gun on her multiple times. Despite CPR to revive her, McKenna passed away shortly after.

McKenna had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder, and depression when she was just fourteen. Her case highlights a growing issue in county jails and prisons across America: resources are scarce for offenders with mental illness.

In 1992, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) and Public Citizen’s Health Research Group released a report revealing alarmingly high numbers of people with serious mental illness incarcerated in the United States. The subsequent 2002 report showed that little had changed in the preceding ten years.

But shortly after McKenna’s death in 2015, Fairfax County Jail—where she had been held—created a Jail Diversion Program (JDP). The objective of this program is to divert low-risk offenders in mental-health crises to treatment rather than send them to a prison setting that exacerbates their symptoms.

JDPs are designed so that authorities, alongside certified crisis clinicians, have the capacity to decide whether a non-violent offender who suffers from a mental disorder is directed to a JDP where they can receive treatment, or is arrested. JDPs give offenders the opportunity to work with a trained mental-health clinician, ultimately transforming how resources are provided.

Sarah Abbot, the program director of Advocates—a JDP in Massachusetts that works with the Framingham Police Department—believes that JDPs are crucial in early intervention for mentally ill offenders.

During an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Abbot explained:

“JDP’s effectively divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system, and have been shown to be successful in the prevention of unnecessary arrests for those who suffer with a mental illness. Police choose to transfer offenders to JDPs 75% of the time.”

Abbot believes that early intervention via JDPs is key to preventing those with a mental illness from reoffending. In 12 years of operation, Advocates has successfully diverted 15,000 individuals from the criminal justice system into treatment.

During calls related to misdemeanors, police respond to the scene with a JDP clinician. After consulting the clinician, the officers use their discretion, along with information from victims and bystanders, to decide whether or not to press charges. Alternatively, the officer can choose to secure treatment for the offending individual at a JDP.

In the latter case, the clinician performs an assessment to determine if the offender meets the criteria for inpatient care. If so, they are diverted from arrest and placed in a local mental-health facility where they receive intensive treatment through the support of counsellors, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists.

The purpose of JDPs is to de-escalate encounters with mentally ill offenders and create a cooperative environment for assessing the situation. Abbot views their contribution as a form of compassionate justice:

“If we can keep mentally ill individuals out of the criminal justice system, their lives will ultimately be better by default. How much better depends on the quality of the treatment they receive and the individual’s commitment to success.”

The literature on JDPs suggests that placing these individuals in treatment programs within their community, where they have the support of family and friends, inevitably results in lower rates of relapse in comparison to incarceration.

Abbot believes that JDPs are vital in keeping individuals away from the isolation of a jail cell:

“My hope is that we divert people like Natasha McKenna into proper treatment, because once they are in a cell, things can escalate quite quickly.”

If somebody with a mental illness has an arrest on their record, JDPs keep doors open to them for education, employment, and housing. JDPs have the potential to protect individuals like McKenna, and provide offenders suffering from mental illness with a second chance at living stable lives post-arrest.

–Nonna Khakpour, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

–Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report.

Copyright Robert T. Muller.

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

vb10-_-feature-1-470x260.jpg

Crushing Debt Affects Student Mental Health

60Anxiety, Career, Depression, Education, Featured news, Health, Politics January, 18

Source: thisisbossi at flickr, Creative Commons

Brian, a graduate from a university in California, struggled financially and emotionally. He often experienced anxiety, panic, and shame about his student loans.

Upon graduating, Brian moved to Germany, and to this point, has not paid back a cent of his debt. So long as Brian continues to live abroad, earns a living in a foreign country, does not pay U.S. taxes, and does not collect social security, loan companies are unable to contact him.

Brian’s story of “debt dodging” is just one way, albeit extreme, some students cope with the stress of educational loans, which play a very large role in higher education in North America. And Brian is not the only student who has left his home, family, and friends to escape.

In Canada, average student debt estimates hover in the mid-to-high $20,000 range. This estimate is close to the $26,300 figure that many students said they expected to owe after graduating, according to a recent Bank of Montreal survey.

When she was granted a large enough loan to pay for four years of university and one year of college, Aneeta (name changed for anonymity), a recent graduate of the journalism program at the University of Guelph-Humber in Canada, says she did not understand the consequences of accepting such a large sum of money.

In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Aneeta explained:

“I really didn’t grasp the gravity of having so much financial assistance from the government, and then having to owe all that money back until after I actually graduated. And it was even more anxiety-provoking because I really struggled to find permanent, full-time work after leaving school.”

Since graduating, Aneeta still lives with her parents and has bounced between temporary retail jobs. The toll the debt has taken on her mental wellbeing includes frequent feelings of self-doubt, embarrassment, and even days of relentless anxiety and depression.

“Honestly, my plan after graduation was to score an awesome job in my field and save up enough money to move out and rent. I just forgot to consider the 25+ thousand dollars that I owe—which I think a lot of undergraduates do, to be honest with you. And every time I think of how much I owe and how much of a long way I have to be debt-free, it freaks me out. And then I feel guilty for spending the money I do have.”

Unable to afford much at all, Aneeta feels isolated and out of the loop; she seldom sees her friends. For students like Aneeta, high debt loads represent not only financial stress, but they can delay the time it takes to reach certain life milestones.

Denise Lopez, a registration and financial aid assistant at the University of Toronto (U of T), said in an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report:

“The number of former students I see who are well into their 30s and 40s and are still paying off their student loans is overwhelming. And many of them admit to being financially restricted from the things they really want to do like buy a car or property.”

Lopez distinctly recalls one U of T alumnus who shared his fear that, when his kids hit university age, he’ll still be paying off his own student loans. And with university tuition rising to record levels in Canada, his fears may not be unfounded.

According to research by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, the cost of a university degree in Canada is getting steeper, with tuition and other compulsory fees expected to triple from 1990 to 2017.

The mental wellbeing of students is not the only area affected by steep tuition and loans—their parents’ lives are also altered. For example, parents are postponing retirement and taking on additional debt to help put their children through school or pay off loans. In Aneeta’s words:

“My dad recently became an UBER driver to help me pay off my loans because I can’t do this on my own. I feel guilty. I can see the financial burden and stress in his face. If he had the choice, he wouldn’t want to be working on-top of the hours he puts in at his day job.”

–Veerpal Bambrah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

–Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report.

Copyright Robert T. Muller.

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

vb10-_-feature-1-470x260-1.jpg

Crushing Debt Affects Student Mental Health

00Anxiety, Career, Depression, Education, Featured news, Health, Politics January, 18

Source: thisisbossi at flickr, Creative Commons

Brian, a graduate from a university in California, struggled financially and emotionally. He often experienced anxiety, panic, and shame about his student loans.

Upon graduating, Brian moved to Germany, and to this point, has not paid back a cent of his debt. So long as Brian continues to live abroad, earns a living in a foreign country, does not pay U.S. taxes, and does not collect social security, loan companies are unable to contact him.

Brian’s story of “debt dodging” is just one way, albeit extreme, some students cope with the stress of educational loans, which play a very large role in higher education in North America. And Brian is not the only student who has left his home, family, and friends to escape.

In Canada, average student debt estimates hover in the mid-to-high $20,000 range. This estimate is close to the $26,300 figure that many students said they expected to owe after graduating, according to a recent Bank of Montreal survey.

When she was granted a large enough loan to pay for four years of university and one year of college, Aneeta (name changed for anonymity), a recent graduate of the journalism program at the University of Guelph-Humber in Canada, says she did not understand the consequences of accepting such a large sum of money.

In an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report, Aneeta explained:

“I really didn’t grasp the gravity of having so much financial assistance from the government, and then having to owe all that money back until after I actually graduated. And it was even more anxiety-provoking because I really struggled to find permanent, full-time work after leaving school.”

Since graduating, Aneeta still lives with her parents and has bounced between temporary retail jobs. The toll the debt has taken on her mental wellbeing includes frequent feelings of self-doubt, embarrassment, and even days of relentless anxiety and depression.

“Honestly, my plan after graduation was to score an awesome job in my field and save up enough money to move out and rent. I just forgot to consider the 25+ thousand dollars that I owe—which I think a lot of undergraduates do, to be honest with you. And every time I think of how much I owe and how much of a long way I have to be debt-free, it freaks me out. And then I feel guilty for spending the money I do have.”

Unable to afford much at all, Aneeta feels isolated and out of the loop; she seldom sees her friends. For students like Aneeta, high debt loads represent not only financial stress, but they can delay the time it takes to reach certain life milestones.

Denise Lopez, a registration and financial aid assistant at the University of Toronto (U of T), said in an interview with the Trauma and Mental Health Report:

“The number of former students I see who are well into their 30s and 40s and are still paying off their student loans is overwhelming. And many of them admit to being financially restricted from the things they really want to do like buy a car or property.”

Lopez distinctly recalls one U of T alumnus who shared his fear that, when his kids hit university age, he’ll still be paying off his own student loans. And with university tuition rising to record levels in Canada, his fears may not be unfounded.

According to research by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, the cost of a university degree in Canada is getting steeper, with tuition and other compulsory fees expected to triple from 1990 to 2017.

The mental wellbeing of students is not the only area affected by steep tuition and loans—their parents’ lives are also altered. For example, parents are postponing retirement and taking on additional debt to help put their children through school or pay off loans. In Aneeta’s words:

“My dad recently became an Uber driver to help me pay off my loans because I can’t do this on my own. I feel guilty. I can see the financial burden and stress in his face. If he had the choice, he wouldn’t want to be working on-top of the hours he puts in at his day job.”

–Veerpal Bambrah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

–Chief Editor: Robert T. MullerThe Trauma and Mental Health Report.

Copyright Robert T. Muller.

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

2 Normal barbie...-88d21adaf84f74daf0a460bb7271285b458c37d6

“Normal Barbie” Challenges Body Ideals

20Body Image, Child Development, Eating Disorders, Featured news, Gender, Politics May, 16

Source: Laura Lewis on Flickr

The Lammilly doll, a more realistic version of the Barbie, is challenging body image ideals perpetuated by the children’s toy industry. Proportioned like an average American woman, the doll comes with accessories that represent realities of the human body: acne scars, stretch marks, and cellulite.

The development of the Lammilly doll, reflecting the average 19-year-old body, was a crowd funded venture, raising over $95,000 in less than a day and over $501,000 in total. But the project first came together when Nickolay Lamm, the creator of the doll, realized that the dimensions of Mattel’s Barbie doll were physically impossible for any woman to attain.

“I created an alternative to suggest that it’s okay to not look like a supermodel, it’s okay to look like a normal person,” Lamm told The Telegraph. He is quoted in the Huffington Post as well, adding: “If we criticize skinny models, we should at least be open to the possibility that Barbie may negatively influence young girls as well.”

The effects of playing with dolls depicting an unrealistic body type have been debated. A study by Helga Dittmar at the University of Sussex found that young girls showed decreased self-esteem and decreased body satisfaction after being exposed to images of Barbie dolls. A recent study conducted by Doeschka Anschutz and Rutger Engels at Radbout University in the Netherlands similarly found that young girls had a decreased appetite after playing with thin dolls.

Eating disorders, such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, have been frequently linked to the media depiction of the “thin ideal” for women, and are increasing in incidence among adolescent girls in North America and Europe. These disorders can lead to immune dysfunction, permanent physical damage, and death.

Lamm found the design of the original Barbie particularly disturbing for this reason. “There’s nothing wrong with being a supermodel but I just had the impression that the wall of supermodels suggests that something is wrong with you if you don’t look like one,” Lamm explained, referring to the Barbies stacked on the shelves of a toy store.

But Kim Culmone, the vice president of design for Barbie, defends the proportions.

“Barbie’s body was never designed to be realistic, she was designed for girls to easily dress and undress”, she said in an interview with Fast Co Design, suggesting that Barbie was meant to be unrealistic, a fantasy in a young girl’s play. “When they’re playing, they’re playing. It’s a princess-fairy-fashionista-doctor-astronaut, and that’s all one girl. She’s taking her Corvette to the moon, and her spaceship to the grocery store.”

But children’s fantasy doesn’t have to include fashionistas in Corvettes.

The Lammily doll comes with her own range of accessories. The “normalness” of the doll does not stop children from being imaginative. The doll can be accessorized with stickers of glasses, bandages, moles, scars, casts, grass stains, and tattoos, all of which promote creative storytelling.

But the Lammily brand may also have its shortcomings. The doll has come under criticism for trying to be too average. Despite Lammily’s popularity with fundraisers and parents, its performance may fall short on the toy store shelf. Many children, bombarded with ads and images of the tall, thin, ideal female, may not be so attracted to the average-looking Lammily doll.

In a story for The Guardian, writer Lionel Shriver describes the doll’s appearance as “downright dumpy”:

“…Has anyone asked the little girls if this is the doll they want to play with? Who pre-ordered these dolls? Parents. Who really wants these dolls? Parents. Are children quite so easily manipulated as this?”

Still, Lammily successfully sold over 22,000 dolls when it launched in November, 2014, and that number continues to grow as the doll becomes available at retail locations. A popular young icon and pop star, Demi Lovato, has voiced her support for the “normal” Barbie, contributing to its popularity.

With both feet firmly planted on the ground, the Lammily doll encourages acceptance. As Lamm states, “I see ‘average’ as inclusive of all of us, not a standard which excludes. I want to show that reality is beautiful.”

– Khadija Bint Misbah, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor, Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

2 Srebrenica massacre-8ac208cedd5330bee7a98e22e648c46166fec975

Srebrenica Massacre Continues to Haunt Victims

10Featured news, Law and Crime, Politics, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Resilience, Trauma March, 16

Source: Sara Benceković

The defendant entered the courtroom, giving a thumbs-up to the judges and clapping mockingly at the spectators watching from a glass-walled gallery. His name: Ratko Mladić, a 70-year-old former Bosnian Serb army general whose troops committed the single largest war crime in Europe since the Second World War.

In July 1995, a 15-square-kilometre area around the city of Srebrenica had been designated to offer shelter to Muslims fleeing Serbian armed forces. 400 Blue Berets were deployed by the United Nations to safeguard the area and over 10,000 people from all over Bosnia flocked to it for safety.

When Mladić’s troops arrived, they overcame the UN forces and most of the men and boys were slaughtered, while women were forced to flee. Over the course of four days, eight thousand people died.

After 16 years of hiding from UN accusations, Mladić was arrested in 2011 and has been on trial for his involvement in the massacre since June of the same year. He is accused of persecution on political, racial and religious grounds, extermination, murder, deportation, inhumane acts, terror, unlawful attacks on civilians, and taking peacekeepers as hostages.

Prosecutors have been building a case against Mladić, claiming that he led a coalition to ethnically cleanse parts of Bosnia of non-Serbs. His intentions, they say, were guided by the Serbian nationalist ideology of the Great Serbia, which aspired to claim territories of modern-day Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro and Macedonia. However, his defence counsel describes Mladić as a patriot who merely fought to defend his people.

Although Mladić denies the allegations, many survivors consider him directly responsible for their trauma. Nineteen years have passed since the end of the war, but the sorrow still hangs heavy over Srebrenica. Over four hundred witnesses flew in from all over Bosnia to testify against him before the tribunal.

In witness testimony during the trial, one survivor said: “My neighbours have gone to live in some other world, my schoolmates lie buried beneath the old playfields. My husband, once warm and loving, now lies bloodless and breathless. My life is an illusion; I died long before I will be buried.”

To this day, mass graves continue to be discovered across Bosnia. So far, nearly 5,000 victims of the bloodshed have been laid to rest, yet similar numbers remain undiscovered. A list with the names of missing people has since been compiled and published in the hope of gathering information from the public that could bring closure to family members.

Despite these efforts, many victims and their families have not yet found peace.

Elvedin Pašić, a witness at the UN trial, testified about being separated from his father when they were captured by Serbian soldiers. Women and children were forced onto buses to be dispatched from what is now Serbian territory, while men, including Pašić’s father, were required to stay behind. Most of them were never seen again.

During Pašić’s testimony, Mladić did not react and later denied feeling any guilt for his participation. His defence team claims that he suffers from a memory disorder that makes it impossible for him to differentiate between truth and fiction.

If the allegations against Mladić are proven in court, he will face a life sentence in prison. Many of those affected by the Srebrenica massacre see his captivity as justice that would end their suffering.

Witnesses have called for a restoration of the region back to its pre-war state. The area of south-eastern Europe used to be a mosaic of overlapping minorities, in which residents rarely had a sense of their neighbours’ nationality. Inter-marriage was common, children were bi-religious, and conflict was far from people’s minds.

Although it will likely take more than the imprisonment of war criminals to heal the trauma endured, Srebrenica survivors have united under the collective vision of rebuilding for the future. By seeking redress in the Mladić trial, the survivors of the region have generated empathy and support from those around them.

They continue to challenge the official history of events and in doing so have become prosecutors and judges in their own right, seeking justice for these crimes.

– Sara Benceković, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Pregnancy Centers

Crisis Pregnancy Centers Traumatize Women Through Deception

10Deception, Featured news, Gender, Politics, Pregnancy, Religion, Trauma February, 16

Source: Heartbeat International on Flickr

In 2002, U.S. President George W. Bush enacted a policy allowing faith-based organizations to receive government grants to provide social services. America’s Crisis Pregnancy Centers (CPCs) were a major beneficiary, receiving an estimated $60 million in federal grants for abstinence promotion between 2001 and 2006.

More recently, access to abortion clinics has become a great concern in the United States, with 70 laws cutting abortion funding passed in 2013. It is estimated that as of 2014, CPCs outnumber abortion clinics five to one.

Founded on Christian ideology, CPCs are at the forefront of the pro-life movement and are gaining popularity among American conservatives. Often presenting themselves as abortion clinics, they claim to offer free pregnancy tests, sonograms and abortions to attract women facing unwanted pregnancies.

But these centres are not medical clinics and do not offer abortions. Women who walk into CPCs seeking guidance are often bombarded with images of aborted fetuses and religious propaganda to dissuade them from aborting unwanted pregnancies. Often located near actual abortion clinics, CPCs attempt to confuse visitors, induce guilt, and pathologize abortion through misinformation.

Misconception is a short documentary from Vice News that exposes unethical practices occurring in crisis centers. The film features hidden camera footage of lies told to women designed to scare them out of terminating their pregnancies.

The documentary shines light on the psychological distress women experience in these centers. CPC counsellors are seen telling women that abortion causes long-term psychological damage, infertility and can lead to complications for future pregnancies.

“If people die due to an abortion, later on they’re finding parts of the fetus in the lungs or the heart,” one counsellor told a client.

Donna, featured in the documentary, recounted a disturbing experience at a CPC in Texas. Thinking that the White Rose was an abortion clinic, she went in to receive a free sonogram and counselling. When she told her story to Vice, Donna was emotionally distraught: “It didn’t occur to me that there was a catch. It’s an awful feeling, being in that place, and I can’t explain why. You go in asking for help, but they’re not giving you the kind of help that you’re asking for. I feel like I was lied to. I feel like I was tricked.”

While some lie outright, other CPCs use controversial studies to dissuade women from aborting. Care Net, one of the largest American CPC networks, distributes a national brochure that purports a significant correlation between abortion and breast cancer, citing a single study that has since been called into question. Multiple other sources have demonstrated that abortion does not affect a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer.

Allison Yarrow’s August 2014 report, The Abortion War’s Special Ops, documents the emotional trauma that women experience from this ongoing deception. The report speaks of counsellors repeatedly warning clients that abortion can lead to ‘post-abortion syndrome’, a supposed condition that includes a combination of suicidal thoughts and depression. Unsurprisingly, an American Psychological Association report found no significant increase in negative emotions or psychiatric illness as a result of having an abortion.

At a pro-life conference in 2012, Abby Johnson, a supporter of CPCs, explained their main strategy. “We want to appear neutral from the outside. The best call, the best client you ever get, is one who thinks they’re walking into an abortion clinic. The one that thinks you provide abortions.”

In an effort to reveal the deceptive tactics of CPCs, some women are fighting back. Pro-choice activist Katie Stack campaigns against anti-abortion legislation after her own disturbing experience at a local crisis center.

In 2011, she started The Crisis Project which exposes the “medical misinformation, emotional manipulation, and religious doctrine” within these clinics across the United States. As an undercover reporter, Stack frequents CPCs in an effort to reveal the harmful inaccuracies they spread.

The fight to end CPC deception comes with its challenges. Earlier this year, Missouri Bill HB 1848, which would have required clinics to notify patrons that they do not perform abortions or give referrals for abortion services, failed to pass. Many states have faced similar roadblocks in establishing pro-choice legislation.

While anti-CPC activists have a long way to go to acquire legislative change in the United States, they are making some headway on an international scale. Global organizations like Google have agreed to remove CPCs’ deceptive advertisements from search results.

On September 18, 2014, Yarrow told the Huffington Post: “We are all entitled to our own positions on abortion, but I bet many people disagree with taxpayer-funded deception.”

– Lauren Goldberg, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Slavery

Human Trafficking Remains Widespread Form of Slavery

00Bias, Featured news, Gender, Health, Law and Crime, Politics, Sex, Stress, Therapy, Trauma April, 15

Source: Bruno Casonato//Flickr

Despite being mostly illegal, slavery remains a global reality.  It is estimated that over 20.9 million people are currently enslaved and involuntarily trafficked within their own countries and across borders.

In an interview with Mark Lagon, Chair of International Relations and Security at Georgetown University’s foreign service program, former Ambassador, and Adjunct Senior Fellow for Human Rights at the Council on Foreign Relations, The Trauma & Mental Health Report learned about human trafficking and the traumatic experiences survivors encounter.

Q:  What is human trafficking?

A:  Human trafficking is a contemporary form of slavery – whether for sexual exploitation or forced labour.  It’s not a general form of exploitation that we sometimes see with globalization, but rather, an extreme version.

It involves appealing to someone who is desperate for a better life and looking for economic opportunities.  The work however, often onerous and violent, is very different from what was promised.  It’s important in terms of mental health and trauma to understand that while human trafficking often involves violence, especially for sexual exploitation, much of the control is psychological by the recruiter or trafficker.

Q:  Who is most vulnerable to becoming a victim of human trafficking?

A:  Those who are desperate for a new life and wooed into a situation that is exploitative are most vulnerable.  These groups are denied access to justice; they are not treated as human beings in full under the law, women or minorities – or in South Asia, those of a lower caste.  Migrants are also particularly vulnerable.  It’s not just undocumented workers around the world, but even some legal guest workers who are, through fraud, indebtedness, and having their papers seized, vulnerable to human trafficking.

Q:  How do gender stereotypes play a role in human trafficking?

A:  Females are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking.  Public attitude that “men have always bought women for sex and they always will” is based on gender stereotypes.  Society regularly tolerates women being turned into near commodities.

But women and girls are also victims of human trafficking for labour – in agriculture and domestic services.  In Kuwait, I met a woman who had been victimized as a domestic servant.  She showed me photographs of herself taken weeks earlier.  Her employers treated her any way they wanted.  In cases like these, women and migrant workers are seen as property.

Q:  What are some signs of people stuck in trafficking situations?

A:  There are some clear danger signs.  The one key sign is people who are intimidated and afraid.  Often, victims seem isolated.  Their boss, whether a pimp or supervisor, keeps them from having access to society.

Q:  What are some barriers to receiving help?

A:  Human trafficking victims often don’t identify themselves.  They are afraid that they will be treated as criminals.

Also, aspects of the trauma are not often discovered.  Someone might be rescued but the psychological hold that their trafficker has may not be fully appreciated.  They may flee the shelters and end up going back to their tormentor because of a kind of Stockholm syndrome or post-traumatic stress.  Survivors need mental health treatment, not just shelter and physical health treatment.

Q:  Much of humanitarian work is based on the notion of restoring survivors’ “human dignity,”  Can you elaborate?

A:  All human beings are of equal basic worth and there are places where people are not treated as human beings at all.  So, dignity is key.  Two things human dignity depends on are agency – someone’s ability to thrive and prosper in making choices, and social recognition – being treated like a human being.  Human trafficking is a classic example of agency and social recognition being crushed.

Q:  How can we empower survivors?

A:  Human trafficking victims are treated like slaves, but are very seldom in shackles or in chains.  Their tormentors convince them that they are unworthy or they have no ability to flee.  It is essential to restore survivors’ dignity, giving them the therapy and mental health treatment they need.

Q:  What can the general public do?

A:  They can understand that even a small amount of public funding from the government for human trafficking victims and mental health care goes a very long way to help people have their freedom.

Q:  Tell us about your upcoming co-edited book, “Human Dignity and the Future of Global Institutions”?

A:  It looks at how the proper goal for institutions like the UN and the International Criminal Court, is to fight for human dignity, and how well they serve that goal.

I’ve written a chapter on human trafficking, and the partnerships between governments, international organizations, non-profits, and businesses that attempted to combat this issue.  And I distinguish between those partnerships that are transformative in helping people reclaim their dignity and those that are doing little for this issue.

For more resources and information on fighting human trafficking, visit the Polaris Project.

– Contributing Writer: Khadija Bint-Misbah, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: Bruno Casonato//Flickr

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

166970-171787

State of Emergency: Suicide in First Nations Communities

00Addiction, Anger, Depression, Education, Featured news, Grief, Health, Identity, Politics, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Spirituality, Suicide, Trauma December, 14

On April 17th 2013, Chief Peter Moonias declared a state of emergency in the community of Neskantaga. Two suicides within days of each other are only the most recent in a string of sudden deaths that have ravaged the group. 

In the four months prior, seven people died, four of them from suicide, and twenty more made suicide attempts. In a community as small and remote as Neskantaga (the reserve is home to 300 people and is only accessible by plane), the residents are tight-knit. And the losses of their family members, friends and neighbours have left many struggling to cope.

Suicide is disturbingly common among some Inuit and First Nations groups, with the rate in some communities eleven times higher than the Canadian average. Overall, First Nations peoples have a suicide rate twice the norm in Canada, a statistic that has been stable for at least three decades.

Colonization of the Americas has had a profound effect on Indigenous populations. In the centuries since first contact, 90% of the American Indigenous population has been wiped out due to plagues, warfare, and forced relocations. The legacy of land seizures and residential schools still haunts these groups.

The immediate survivors of these incidents would undoubtedly be traumatized, but many of the people who have committed suicide in recent years were not personally exposed. How can trauma inflicted centuries ago have an impact on current suicide rates?

The answer lies in the concept of historical or collective trauma, which Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart, Associate Professor at the University of New Mexico, defines as “cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan, and across generations, emanating from massive group trauma experiences.”

Also known as generational grief, the trauma results from suffering profound losses in areas such as culture and identity, without resolution. Unresolved, deep seated emotions like sadness, anger and grief are passed on from generation to generation through parental practices, relations with others and culture-wide belief systems.

In everyday life, the trauma manifests itself through social problems like drug use, familial abuse and violence. These events can cause traumas of their own and result in depression and PTSD, both of which increase suicide attempts.

Young people are especially at risk. In the cohort of 15-24, the rate of completed suicides is five to seven times the national (Canadian) average, and suicide attempts are even more frequent 

Chris Moonias (no relation to Chief Peter Moonias), an emergency response worker in Neskantaga, told the CBC that since the end of 2012, “We average about ten suicide attempts per month, and at one time we surpassed thirty attempts in one month.”

In addition to unresolved grief, Cynthia Howard of Laurentian University identifies several factors that contribute to suicides in Aboriginal communities. These include: attendance at residential schools and abuse experiences there, forced assimilation, displacement, and adoptions. These experiences have left legitimate feelings of distrust towards dominant American and Canadian cultures and feelings of loss of culture.

Some people also feel strung between two cultures (dominant culture and their own band’s culture) while essentially belonging to neither. Feeling alienated and lacking a sense of belonging can leave many people depressed and feeling that their lives lack a sense of purpose.

Other issues such as low socioeconomic status and extreme poverty, along with low levels of education and lack of opportunity have lead to feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.

“Learned helplessness” occurs when a group or individual, usually after a series of disastrous events, believes they have no control over the outcome of any situation, and that perceived failures in the present will likely continue into the future. Without hope, people sometimes feel that living is worse than not living. This feeling is only exacerbated by a shared history of trauma and its consequences, and can culminate in suicide.

Unfortunately, many people suffering do not receive adequate help. Their families and friends are also left without professional support, continuing the cycle of unresolved grief.

Perhaps it is fitting that Chief Moonias of Neskantaga called a state of emergency. His community has reached a tipping point and must be healed in order to move forward. 

As of now, the federal Canadian government has offered some monetary and human aid, but unless we go beyond band-aid solutions, frequent suicides and their consequences will continue to haunt Neskantaga.

– Contributing Writer: Jennifer Parlee, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

 Photo Credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kittysfotos/6235090832/”>Kitty Terwolbeck</a

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

165569-170203

LGBTQ Refugees Lack Mental Health Care

00Addiction, Depression, Education, Featured news, Gender, Health, Identity, Politics, Psychiatry, Psychopharmacology, Sexual Orientation, Stress, Suicide, Trauma November, 14

In 2012, the Canadian government introduced cuts to the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP), which provides health coverage for immigrants seeking refuge in Canada. Coverage was scaled back for vision and dental care, as well as prescription medication. At the same time, the introduction of Bill C-31, the Protecting Canada’s Immigration System Act, left refugees with zero coverage for counselling and mental health services.

The bill affects all refugees and immigrants, but individuals seeking asylum based on persecution for sexual orientation or gender identity have been hit especially hard by these cuts.

LGBTQ refugees are affected by psychological trauma stemming from sexual torture and violence aimed at ‘curing’ their sexual identity. Often alienated from family, they are more likely to be fleeing their country of origin alone, at risk for depression, substance abuse, and suicide.

On arrival in Canada, refugees struggle with the claim process itself, which has been cited by asylum seekers and mental health workers as a major source of stress for newcomers. For LGBTQ individuals, the process is even harder, having to come out and defend their orientation after a lifetime spent hiding and denying their identity.

In 2013, six Canadian provinces introduced individual programs to supplement coverage. The Ontario Temporary Health Program (OTHP) came into effect on January 1, 2014, and provides refugees and immigrants short-term and urgent health coverage. But it still lacks provisions for mental health services.

Envisioning Global LGBT Human Rights, an organization and research project out of York University in Toronto, has been collecting data from focus groups with LGBTQ refugee claimants both pre- and post-hearing. A recent report by lawyer and project member Rohan Sanjnani explains how the refugee healthcare system has failed. LGBTQ asylum seekers are human beings deserving respect, dignity, and right to life under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Sanjnani argues that IFHP cuts are unconstitutional and that refugees have been relegated to a healthcare standard well below that of the average Canadian.

Arguments like these have brought legal challenges, encouraging courts and policy makers to consider LGBTQ rights within the framework of global human rights.

In July of this year, Bill C-31 was struck down in a federal court as unconstitutional, but the government filed an appeal on September 22. Only if the appeal fails could immigrant healthcare be reinstated to include many of the benefits removed in 2012.

Reversing the cuts to IFHP funding would not solve the problem entirely. LGBTQ asylum seekers face the challenge of finding service providers who can deal with their specific needs. The personal accounts collected by Envisioning tell a story of missed opportunity, limited access to essential services, and ultimate disappointment.

In the last two years, programs have sprung up to address these special needs. In Toronto -one of the preferred havens for LGBTQ refugees- some health providers now offer free mental health services to refugees who lack coverage. Centers like Rainbow Health Ontario and Supporting Our Youth have programs to help refugees come out, and to assist with isolation from friends and family back home, and with adjusting to a new life in Canada.

Still, the need for services greatly outnumbers providers; and accessibility issues persist.

Organizations like Envisioning try to create change through legal channels, but public opinion on LGBTQ healthcare access needs to be onside for real change to occur. Recent World Pride events held in Toronto were a step in the right direction. But specialized training of healthcare professionals and public education would go a long way in providing the LGBTQ community with the care they need.

– Contributing Writer: Sarah Hall, The Trauma and Mental Health Report 

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/vhhammer/3238712773/

This article was originally published on Psychology Today