Category: Productivity

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In Post-Secondary School and Homeless

00Depression, Education, Featured news, Loneliness, Productivity, Sleep August, 19

Source: liborius at Flickr, some rights reserved

Under the concrete, ivy-covered walls of many universities lies a disturbing phenomenon; homelessness. Many find it incomprehensible that homelessness would exist in these spaces, but  it does. A study by Michael Sulkowski shows that student homelessness is growing at an “unprecedented rate,” with 1 million affected. Rising tuition costs, coupled with a higher cost of living, makes it unlikely that student homelessness will be resolved any time soon. 

In an interview with The Trauma and Mental Health Report, Maya (name changed for anonymity), a fourth-year psychology major, explained what it was like living as a homeless university student:

“I would search for empty lecture halls to sleep in. I would adjust my sleep schedule by sleeping during the daytime and remaining awake at night, because it was much safer to do so.”

“I would carry my bags with me, which contained all of my belongings. Classmates and friends would ask me why I was always carrying my stuff around, but I was hesitant to tell them that I was homeless. I was afraid and ashamed of my living situation and did not want anyone to know. I was afraid that people would judge me and believe that I was to blame for my homelessness,”

When at school, Maya said that it was hard to focus on her studies and practice self-care, as her homelessness took top priority:

“I would try to do everything in my power to not bring attention to myself. I would not ask questions in class, and I would avoid making friends with other classmates. I felt sub-human and inferior. I found myself deteriorating both physically and mentally. My hair began to turn grey and greasy, my skin was pale, and my mental health was in shambles. I was so focused on my homelessness that my grades also began to suffer.”

Eventually, things got a little better for Maya, as she found a temporary place to stay:

“One of my friends was a student executive for a women’s advocacy club on-campus, and she told me that I could use the office to sleep. It was a relief because I was given food, menstrual pads and tampons, as well as a place to sleep. It really helped me to get back on my feet.”

Why does homelessness among university students seem to be an invisible issue? Stephen Gaetz, director of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness and Professor at York University explained this issue in an interview with CBC News Toronto: 

“The hidden homeless is a much different population compared to the homeless population that is seen in emergency shelters. Student homelessness is often overlooked because they pull all-nighters in school, take showers in the gym, and sleep on the couches.”

According to Sulkowski’s study, youth homelessness receives less economic resources compared to adult homelessness. Youth who experience homelessness encounter several barriers to their academic success and well-being, leaving them vulnerable. One barrier that Maya had to overcome was difficulty accessing on-campus resources:

“When I tried to access counselling services, the first thing they asked me was my address. I did not have one, so I used my mother’s address instead. Something as simple as an address was a large issue for me, which isn’t something that we think about too often.”

“But even when I tried getting help for my living situation, I was given the run-around. I would call one service, and they would refer me to another one. I honestly felt like no one cared and wanted to help me, so I stopped asking for help.”

And Maya’s story is not unique. Recently, one student at the University of Alberta shared his experience with homelessness, explaining that he “slept in parks or near malls” and would find himself “frequently accessing the university food bank.” Despite the number of anecdotes regarding student homelessness, there is no national approximation for the number of post-secondary students facing homelessness in Canada, and university-specific data are not currently available.

I asked Maya what she believed post-secondary institutions should do to address the growing issue of student homelessness, given her own experience:

“Firstly, I think that campuses should have services that allow students who are homeless to access these resources without having to provide sensitive personal information. Secondly, having a kitchen on-campus stocked with food so students can prepare their own meals. Oftentimes the food that is provided by the school’s food bank is not accessible because you need a fridge or stove in order to eat it.”

Student homelessness is a problem that goes unseen. For many who experience it, they resist speaking out for fear of being shamed by their circumstances and ridiculed by others. 

-Zeinab Mohamed, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

-Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

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Post-Secondary School and Homelessness

00Depression, Education, Featured news, Loneliness, Productivity, Sleep August, 19

Source: liborius at Flickr, some rights reserved

Under the ivy-covered walls of many universities lies a disturbing phenomenon: homelessness. Many find it incomprehensible that homelessness would exist in these spaces, but it does. A study by Michael Sulkowski shows that student homelessness is growing at an “unprecedented rate,” with 1 million affected. Rising tuition costs, coupled with a higher cost of living, makes it unlikely that student homelessness will be resolved any time soon. 

In an interview with The Trauma and Mental Health Report, Maya (name changed for anonymity), a fourth-year psychology major, explained what it was like living as a homeless university student:

“I would search for empty lecture halls to sleep in. I would adjust my sleep schedule by sleeping during the daytime and remaining awake at night, because it was much safer to do so.”

“I would carry my bags with me, which contained all of my belongings. Classmates and friends would ask me why I was always carrying my stuff around, but I was hesitant to tell them that I was homeless. I was afraid and ashamed of my living situation and did not want anyone to know. I was afraid that people would judge me and believe that I was to blame for my homelessness,”

When at school, Maya said that it was hard to focus on her studies and practice self-care, as her homelessness took top priority:

“I would try to do everything in my power to not bring attention to myself. I would not ask questions in class, and I would avoid making friends with other classmates. I felt sub-human and inferior. I found myself deteriorating both physically and mentally. My hair began to turn grey and greasy, my skin was pale, and my mental health was in shambles. I was so focused on my homelessness that my grades also began to suffer.”

Eventually, things got a little better for Maya, as she found a temporary place to stay:

“One of my friends was a student executive for a women’s advocacy club on-campus, and she told me that I could use the office to sleep. It was a relief because I was given food, menstrual pads, and tampons, as well as a place to sleep. It really helped me to get back on my feet.”

Why does homelessness among university students seem to be an invisible issue? Stephen Gaetz, director of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness and Professor at York University explained this issue in an interview with CBC News Toronto: 

“The hidden homeless is a much different population compared to the homeless population that is seen in emergency shelters. Student homelessness is often overlooked because they pull all-nighters in school, take showers in the gym, and sleep on the couches.”

According to Sulkowski’s study, youth homelessness receives less economic resources compared to adult homelessness. Youth who experience homelessness encounter several barriers to their academic success and well-being, leaving them vulnerable. One barrier that Maya had to overcome was difficulty accessing on-campus resources:

“When I tried to access counseling services, the first thing they asked me was my address. I did not have one, so I used my mother’s address instead. Something as simple as an address was a large issue for me, which isn’t something that we think about too often.”

“But even when I tried getting help for my living situation, I was given the run-around. I would call one service, and they would refer me to another one. I honestly felt like no one cared and wanted to help me, so I stopped asking for help.”

And Maya’s story is not unique. Recently, one student at the University of Alberta shared his experience with homelessness, explaining that he “slept in parks or near malls” and would find himself “frequently accessing the university food bank.” Despite the number of anecdotes regarding student homelessness, there is no national approximation for the number of post-secondary students facing homelessness in Canada, and university-specific data are not currently available.

I asked Maya what she believed post-secondary institutions should do to address the growing issue of student homelessness, given her own experience:

“Firstly, I think that campuses should have services that allow students who are homeless to access these resources without having to provide sensitive personal information. Secondly, having a kitchen on-campus stocked with food so students can prepare their own meals. Oftentimes the food that is provided by the school’s food bank is not accessible because you need a fridge or stove in order to eat it.”

Student homelessness is a problem that goes unseen. For many who experience it, they resist speaking out for fear of being shamed by their circumstances and ridiculed by others. 

—Zeinab Mohamed, Contributing Writer, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report.

—Copyright Robert T. Muller

This article was originally published on Psychology Today

Brain Trauma, feature2

Coping With Traumatic Brain Injury

70Anxiety, Child Development, Cognition, Depression, Empathy, Environment, Featured news, Health, Memory, Neuroscience, Productivity, Sleep, Sport and Competition, Trauma February, 15

Source: Shine In Your Crazy Diamond//Flicker

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) contribute to many deaths each year, and can lead to the development of secondary mental health problems.  The Centre for Disease Control has reported that approximately 1.7 million TBIs occur every year, and individuals with a TBI commonly suffer cognitive impairments and developmental delays.

The Trauma & Mental Health Report recently spoke with Tricia Williams, a clinical neuropsychologist at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, who works with children who have different forms of TBI.  Williams explained how to improve child development and mental health for individuals coping with a TBI.

Q:  What are the most common injuries that lead to the development of a TBI?

A:  A TBI is caused when an external mechanical force, such as a blow to the head or a concussive force causes harm to the head or body.  Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of TBIs.

Other common injuries include falls (which are common in young children and infants), sport injuries, concussions, horseback riding, interpersonal violence (fighting, gun shots, physical hits to the head by person/object,) and war related injuries.

Q:  How is a TBI diagnosed?

A:  Professionals in emergency services diagnose a TBI in the acute state at the time of injury.  They assess the severity of the injury by checking eye responses, verbal responses, motor responses, and mobile ability.  CT scans are initially performed to rule out bleeding and swelling, and then an MRI may be performed as follow up.  Amnesia is another way to diagnose a TBI. The degree of memory loss prior to the event, and difficulty forming new memory can provide more information about the injury. The duration of loss of consciousness can also affect the severity of the injury, which may be ranked as either mild, moderate, or severe.

Q:  What is involved in rehabilitation following a TBI?

A:  In the acute state, the TBI is managed medically, including neurosurgical intervention.  Once stabilized at the hospital, children move on to rehabilitation.  An assessment of physical, functional, and speech abilities are conducted, and occupational therapists and speech and language pathologists then work with the children. Neuropsychological assessments are conducted after the acute state to help children transition back to school.  The children continue with follow-up visits to monitor the impact of the injury on developing cognitive skills.

Q:  As a clinical neuropsychologist, what is your role with patients who have a TBI?

A:  Children are seen as inpatients at the hospital after the injury, and are also seen as outpatients after they have transitioned home.  They can be followed for many years after the injury.  Typically, they are seen during transitional periods such as the transition from primary school to high school.  A thorough assessment of the child’s skills (IQ, memory and learning, language, processing speed, executive functioning, academic skills, visual and motor skills, socio-emotional status) are conducted and compared to previous testing to assess the child’s progress and developing difficulties.

Q:  What daily activities can become difficult for an individual with a TBI?

A:  Activities that can be difficult depend on the nature and severity of the injury, the stage of recovery, and how well they have been supported.  Common complaints across all injuries include:  keeping up with class, forgetfulness, difficulty paying attention, and becoming easily fatigued, overwhelmed, and frustrated.  Because these activities can be challenging, continued support from their physicians and neuropsychologists as well as family support is very important during the recovery process.

Q:  How can secondary mental health symptoms develop from a TBI?

A:  Depression is a common outcome, and can develop as a reaction to the injury or to neurochemical changes in the brain.  Anxiety is also a common reaction to the injury, because if the child is old enough to understand what has happened, they might expect it to happen again.  This is common for children who developed a TBI as a result of a sports injury.  Children can also be anxious about their academic achievement and about performing well in school.  It is important to make patients aware of potential secondary mental health symptoms. But, individuals with a TBI can also have a greater appreciation of life, as they see themselves as survivors.

Q:  What advice can you offer someone with TBI?

A:  Be patient with yourself and try to normalize your emotional variability.  It’s important to ask for and accept help, and to find the balance between accepting what has happened and moving on.  Individuals should keep in mind that while there are variable outcomes, full recovery is possible.  Finding a “new normal” for oneself without becoming centered on the injury is extremely important.

Q:  Do you have any further suggestions for coping with a TBI?

A:  Here is a list of helpful tips:

  • Take additional time on activities as needed
  • Manage fatigue (with exercise/relaxation, sleep)
  • Ask for repetition of key information and written outlines of key terminology
  • Repeat back what people tell you to ensure you are understanding
  • Use your phone or equivalent to make dictated notes and reminders with regularly scheduled playback times
  • Break down (or ask someone to help you break down) larger tasks into smaller manageable parts
  • Choose the time of day when you are most able to accomplish tasks that require more obvious mental effort and sustained attention
  • Recognize the signs that you are losing attention/productivity or becoming overwhelmed and take a break
  • Exercise can help relieve tension, improve sleep and attention
  • Seek out a quiet room to complete work or practice techniques as needed
  • Social support is extremely helpful

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) contribute to many deaths each year, and can lead to the development of secondary mental health problems.  The Centre for Disease Controlhas reported that approximately 1.7 million TBIs occur every year, and individuals with a TBI commonly suffer cognitive impairments and developmental delays.

The Trauma & Mental Health Report recently spoke with Tricia Williams, a clinical neuropsychologist at Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, who works with children who have different forms of TBI.  Williams explained how to improve child development and mental health for individuals coping with a TBI.

Q:  What are the most common injuries that lead to the development of a TBI?

A:  A TBI is caused when an external mechanical force, such as a blow to the head or a concussive force causes harm to the head or body.  Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of TBIs.

Other common injuries include falls (which are common in young children and infants), sport injuries, concussions, horseback riding, interpersonal violence (fighting, gun shots, physical hits to the head by person/object), and war related injuries.

Q:  How is a TBI diagnosed?

A:  Professionals in emergency services diagnose a TBI in the acute state at the time of injury.  They assess the severity of the injury by checking eye responses, verbal responses, motor responses, and mobile ability.  CT scans are initially performed to rule out bleeding and swelling, and then an MRI may be performed as follow up.  Amnesia is another way to diagnose a TBI. The degree of memory loss prior to the event, and difficulty forming new memory can provide more information about the injury. The duration of loss of consciousness can also affect the severity of the injury, which may be ranked as either mild, moderate, or severe.

Q:  What is involved in rehabilitation following a TBI?

A:  In the acute state, the TBI is managed medically, including neurosurgical intervention.  Once stabilized at the hospital, children move on to rehabilitation.  An assessment of physical, functional, and speech abilities are conducted, and occupational therapists and speech and language pathologists then work with the children. Neuropsychological assessments are conducted after the acute state to help children transition back to school.  The children continue with follow-up visits to monitor the impact of the injury on developing cognitive skills.

Q:  As a clinical neuropsychologist, what is your role with patients who have a TBI?

A:  Children are seen as inpatients at the hospital after the injury, and are also seen as outpatients after they have transitioned home.  They can be followed for many years after the injury.  Typically, they are seen during transitional periods such as the transition from primary school to high school.  A thorough assessment of the child’s skills (IQ, memory and learning, language, processing speed, executive functioning, academic skills, visual and motor skills, socio-emotional status) are conducted and compared to previous testing to assess the child’s progress and developing difficulties.

Q:  What daily activities can become difficult for an individual with a TBI?

A:  Activities that can be difficult depend on the nature and severity of the injury, the stage of recovery, and how well they have been supported.  Common complaints across all injuries include:  keeping up with class, forgetfulness, difficulty paying attention, and becoming easily fatigued, overwhelmed, and frustrated.  Because these activities can be challenging, continued support from their physicians and neuropsychologists as well as family support is very important during the recovery process.

Q:  How can secondary mental health symptoms develop from a TBI?

A:  Depression is a common outcome, and can develop as a reaction to the injury or to neurochemical changes in the brain.  Anxiety is also a common reaction to the injury, because if the child is old enough to understand what has happened, they might expect it to happen again.  This is common for children who developed a TBI as a result of a sports injury.  Children can also be anxious about their academic achievement and about performing well in school.  It is important to make patients aware of potential secondary mental health symptoms. But, individuals with a TBI can also have a greater appreciation of life, as they see themselves as survivors.

Q:  What advice can you offer someone with TBI?

A:  Be patient with yourself and try to normalize your emotional variability.  It’s important to ask for and accept help, and to find the balance between accepting what has happened and moving on.  Individuals should keep in mind that while there are variable outcomes, full recovery is possible.  Finding a “new normal” for oneself without becoming centered on the injury is extremely important.

Q:  Do you have any further suggestions for coping with a TBI?

A:  Here is a list of helpful tips:

Take additional time on activities as needed
Manage fatigue (with exercise/relaxation, sleep)
Ask for repetition of key information and written outlines of key terminology
Repeat back what people tell you to ensure you are understanding
Use your phone or equivalent to make dictated notes and reminders with regularly scheduled playback times
Break down (or ask someone to help you break down) larger tasks into smaller manageable parts
Choose the time of day when you are most able to accomplish tasks that require more obvious mental effort and sustained attention
Recognize the signs that you are losing attention/productivity or becoming overwhelmed and take a break
Exercise can help relieve tension, improve sleep and attention
Seek out a quiet room to complete work or practice techniques as needed
Social support is extremely helpful

– Contributing Writer: Janany Jayanthikumar, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

– Chief Editor: Robert T. Muller, The Trauma and Mental Health Report

Copyright Robert T. Muller

Photo Credit: Shine In Your Crazy Diamond//Flickr 

This article was originally published on Psychology Today